Heraklion

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Heraklion
Ηράκλειο
The Venetian fortress o Rocca al Mare (1523–1540) guards the inner harbour o Heraklion.
The Venetian fortress o Rocca al Mare (1523–1540) guards the inner harbour o Heraklion.
Location
Heraklion is located in Greece
Heraklion
Heraklion
Coordinates 35°20′N 25°8′E / 35.333°N 25.133°E / 35.333; 25.133
Govrenment
Kintra: Greece
Region: Crete
Regional unit: Heraklion
Destricts: Nea Alikarnassos, Gazi
Mayor: Ioannis Kourakis  (PASOK)
Population statistics (as o 2011)
Municipality
 - Population: 173,450
 - Aurie: 120 km2 (46 sq mi)
 - Densitie: 1,445 /km2 (3,744 /sq mi)
Ither
Time zone: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)
Elevation (min-max): 0 - 33 m ­(0 - 108 ft)
Postal: 70x xx, 71x xx, 720 xx
Telephone: 2810
Auto: HK, HP
Wabsteid
www.heraklion-city.gr

Heraklion, spelt Heraclion an Iraklion (Greek: Ηράκλειο Greek pronunciation: [iˈraklio]) an aw, is the lairgest ceety an the admeenistrative caipital o the island o Crete, Greece. It is the 4t lairgest ceety in Greece.

Heraklion is the caipital o Heraklion regional unit. The ruins o Knossos, which wur excavatit an restored bi Arthur Evans, are nearbi. The Heraklion Internaitional Airport is namit efter Nikos Kazantzakis.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Arab raiders frae Andalusie who foondit the Emirate o Crete muivit the island's caipital frae Gortyn tae a new castle they cried rabḍ al-ḫandaq 'Castle o the Moat' in the 820s.[1] This wis hellenisit as Χάνδαξ (Handax) or Χάνδακας an Laitinisit as Candia, which was taken into other European leids: in Italian as Candia (uised unner the Venetian rule), in French as Candie, in Inglis as Candy, aw o which coud refer tae aw o Crete as well as tae the ceety itsel; the Ottoman name wis Kandiye.

Efter the Byzantine reconquest, the ceety wis locally kent as Megalo Kastro or Castro (the Big Castle in Greek) an its inhabitants wur cried Kastrinoi or Castrini (Castle-dwallers in Greek).

The auncient name Ηράκλειον wis revivit in the 19t century[2] an comes frae the nearbi Roman port o Heracleum ("Heracles' ceety"), whose exact location is unkent. Inglis uisage umwhile preferred the classicisin transliterations "Heraklion" or "Heraclion", but the form "Iraklion" is becomin mair common.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The snake goddess (c.1600 BCE) in Heraklion Archaeological Museum.

Heraklion is close tae the ruins o the palace o Knossos, which in Minoan times wis the lairgest centre o population on Crete. Tho thare is nae airchaeological evidence o it, Knossos mey well hae haed a port at the steid o Heraklion as lang ago as 2000 BC.

Foondin[eedit | eedit soorce]

The present ceety o Heraklion wis foondit in 824 bi the Saracens who haed been expelled frae Al-Andalus by Emir Al-Hakam I an haed taken ower the island frae the Eastren Roman Empire. They built a moat aroond the ceety for protection, an namit the ceety ربض الخندق, rabḍ al-ḫandaq ("Castle o the Moat"). The Saracens alloued the port tae be uised as a safe haven for pirates who operatit against Imperial shippin an raidit Imperial territory aroond the Aegean.

Restored Greek Era[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 961, Imperial forces unner the command o Nikephoros Phokas, later tae become Emperor, laundit in Crete an attackit the ceety. Efter a prolangit siege, the ceety fell. The Saracen inhabitants wur slauchtered, the ceety luitit an burned tae the grund. Suin rebuilt, the toun o Chandax remained unner Greek control for the next 243 years.

Venetian control[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Venetian loggia (1626–28).
Α pairt o the Venetian harbour (uised for warehooses).

In 1204, the ceety wis bocht bi the Republic o Venice as pairt o a complicatit poleetical deal which involvit amang ither things, the Crusaders o the Fowert Crusade restorin the deposed Eastren Roman Emperor Isaac II Angelus tae his throne. The Venetians impruivit on the ditch o the ceety bi biggin enormous fortifications, maist o which are still in place, includin a giant wall, in places up tae 40 m thick, wi 7 bastions, an a fortress in the harbour. Chandax wis renamit Candia an became the seat of the Duke o Candia, an the Venetian admeenistrative destrict o Crete became known as "regno di Candia" (kinrick o Candia). The ceety retained the name o Candia for centuries an the same name wis aften uised tae refer tae the whole island o Crete as well. Tae secur their rule, Venetians began in 1212 tae settle faimilies frae Venice on Crete. The coexistence o twa different culturs an the stimulus o Italian Renaissance led tae a flourishin o letters an the airts in Candia an Crete in general, that is the day kent as the Cretan Renaissance.

Ottoman Era[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Ottoman Vezir Mosque (1856), built on the steid o the kirk o St Titus, an nou the basilica o St Titus.

Efter the Venetians came the Ottoman Empire. Durin the Cretan War (1645–1669), the Ottomans besiegit the ceety for 21 years, frae 1648 to 1669, perhaps the langest siege in history. In its feenal phase, which lastit for 22 months, 70,000 Turks, 38,000 Cretans an slaves an 29,088 o the ceety's Christian defenders perisht.[3] The Ottoman airmy unner an Albanie grand vizier, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha conquered the ceety in 1669. Unner the Ottomans, the ceety wis kent offeecially as Kandiye (again applee'd tae the whole island o Crete) but informally in Greek as Megalo Castro (Μεγάλο Κάστρο; "Big Castle"). Durin the Ottoman period, the harbour siltit up, so maist shippin shiftit tae Chania in the wast o the island.

Modren era[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Cathedral.
An ootdoor mercat in Heraklion.

In 1898, the autonomous Cretan State wis creatit, unner Ottoman suzerainty, wi Prince George o Greece as its Heich Commissioner an unner internaitional superveesion. Durin the period o direct occupation o the island bi the Great Pouers (1898–1908), Candia wis pairt o the Breetish zone. At this time, the ceety wis renamit "Heraklion", efter the Roman port o Heracleum ("Heracles' ceety"), whose exact location is unkent.

In 1913, wi the rest o Crete Heraklion wis incorporatit intae the Kinrick o Greece.

Municipality[eedit | eedit soorce]

A street o Heraklion.

The municipality Heraklion wis formit at the 2011 local govrenment reform bi the merger o the follaein 5 umwhile municipalities, that became municipal units:[4]

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Port[eedit | eedit soorce]

Panoramic view o the Auld Harbour.
Panoramic view o the harbour.

Heraklion is an important shippin port and ferry dock. Travellers can take ferries and boats from Heraklion to destinations including Santorini, Ios Island, Paros, Mykonos, and Rhodes. There are also several daily ferries to Piraeus, the port of Athens on mainland Greece.

Airport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Heraklion Internaitional Airport, or Nikos Kazantzakis Airport is locatit aboot 5 km east o the ceety. The airport is namit efter Heraklion native Nikos Kazantzakis, a writer an filosopher. It is the seicont busiest airport o Greece, due tae Crete bein a major holiday destination.

The airfield is shared wi the 126 Combat Group o the Hellenic Air Force.

Heich-gate Netwirk[eedit | eedit soorce]

European route E75 runs throu the ceety an connects Heraklion wi the three ither major ceeties o Crete: Agios Nikolaos, Chania, an Rethymno.

Public transit[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are a nummer o buses servin the ceety an connectin it tae mony major destinations in Crete.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Crete haes a wairm Mediterranean climate. Simmers in the lawlands are hot an dry wi clear skies. Dry hot days are aften relievit bi saisonal breezes. The muntain auries are hintle ceuler, wi considerable rain in the winter. Winters are mild in the lawlands wi rare frost an snaw. Acause Heraklion is further sooth than Athens, it haes a milder climate.

Climate data for Heraklion
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 24.8
(76.6)
26.2
(79.2)
29.4
(84.9)
34.5
(94.1)
38.0
(100.4)
41.3
(106.3)
41.0
(105.8)
42.0
(107.6)
39.5
(103.1)
35.7
(96.3)
31.2
(88.2)
28.5
(83.3)
29.4
(84.9)
Average heich °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
15.5
(59.9)
16.8
(62.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.5
(74.3)
27.3
(81.1)
28.6
(83.5)
28.4
(83.1)
26.4
(79.5)
23.1
(73.6)
20.1
(68.2)
17.0
(62.6)
21.9
(71.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.1
(53.8)
12.3
(54.1)
13.3
(55.9)
16.1
(61.0)
19.2
(66.6)
23.2
(73.8)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
22.9
(73.2)
19.8
(67.6)
16.8
(62.2)
14.0
(57.2)
18.4
(65.1)
Average laich °C (°F) 9.0
(48.2)
9.0
(48.2)
9.8
(49.6)
12.0
(53.6)
14.9
(58.8)
19.0
(66.2)
21.7
(71.1)
21.7
(71.1)
19.3
(66.7)
16.5
(61.7)
13.4
(56.1)
10.9
(51.6)
14.8
(58.6)
Record laich °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
0.2
(32.4)
0.3
(32.5)
4.4
(39.9)
6.0
(42.8)
12.2
(54.0)
16.2
(61.2)
16.6
(61.9)
12.5
(54.5)
8.7
(47.7)
4.4
(39.9)
2.4
(36.3)
0.2
(32.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 91.5
(3.602)
77.4
(3.047)
57.4
(2.26)
30.0
(1.181)
15.2
(0.598)
3.2
(0.126)
1.0
(0.039)
0.7
(0.028)
19.5
(0.768)
68.8
(2.709)
58.8
(2.315)
77.1
(3.035)
500.6
(19.709)
Avg. precipitation days 10.1 9.1 6.9 3.4 1.9 0.5 0.1 0.1 1.3 4.9 6.0 8.9 53.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.8 124.7 176.7 228.0 300.7 351.0 372.0 347.2 282.0 198.4 150.0 120.9 2,769.4
Source: Hong Kong Observatory[5] NOAA (extremes)[6]

Colleges, Universities, an Research Centers[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Phaistos disk (2nt millennium BC) in Heraklion Archaeological Museum.

Museums[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety hosts three fitbaa clubs:

Famous natives[eedit | eedit soorce]

Heraklion haes been the hame toun o some o Greece's maist significant spirits, includin the novelist Nikos Kazantzakis, the poet an Nobel Prize winner Odysseas Elytis an the warld-famous painter Domenicos Theotokopoulos (El Greco).

Local TV stations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Heraklion is twinned wi:

Location[eedit | eedit soorce]

     Fira     
 Chania - Rethymno  Brosen windrose.svg  Agios Nikolaos    
 Tympaki - Moires   Archanes    Ierapetra 

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Encyclopaedia of Islam, s.v. Iķrīṭish
  2. it wis in uise bi the local fowk bi 1867, see Samuel Gridley Howe, The Cretan refugees and their American helpers, 1867 [1]
  3. The War for Candia
  4. Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (Greek)
  5. "Climatological Information for Iraklion, Greece" – Hong Kong Observatory
  6. "Iraklion Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 19, 2012. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]