Germanium

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Germanium
32Ge
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
Appearance
grayish-white
Grayish lustrous block wi uneven cleaved surface
A 12 gram (2x3 cm) polycrystalline block o Ge wi uneven cleaved surfaces
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer germanium, Ge, 32
Pronunciation /ərˈmniəm/
jər-MAY-nee-əm
Element category metalloid
Group, period, block 14, 4, p
Staundart atomic wicht 72.630(8) 
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
2, 8, 18, 4
Electron shells of germanium (2, 8, 18, 4)
History
Namin efter Germany, homeland o the discoverer
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery Clemens Winkler (1886)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 5.323 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.60 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 1211.40 K, 938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F
Boilin pynt 3106 K, 2833 °C, 5131 °F
Heat o fusion 36.94 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 334 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.01 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 762 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1537.5 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3302.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond cubic
Germanium has a diamond cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin Diamagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 1 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5400 m·s−1
Young's modulus 103[2] GPa
Shear modulus 41[2] GPa
Bulk modulus 75[2] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26[2]
Mohs hairdness 6.0
CAS registry nummer 7440-56-4
Band gap energy at 300 K 0.67 eV
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o germanium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε - 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable wi 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε - 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable wi 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable wi 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable wi 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 2.039 76Se
· r

Germanium is a chemical element wi seembol Ge an atomic nummer 32. It is a lustrous, haird, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically seemilar tae its group neighbors tin an silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, wi an appearance maist similar tae elemental silicon. Lik silicon, germanium naiturally reacts an furms complexes wi oxygen in naitur. Unlik silicon, it is too reactive tae be foond naiturally on Yird in the free (native) state.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Properties of Germanium". Ioffe Institute.