Fijian leid

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Fijian
Na vosa vaka-Viti
Spoken natively in Fiji
Region Spoken as first leid on Vanua Levu,
the eastren hauf o Viti Levu,
an on the lesser islands
o Kadavu, Nayau,
Lakeba, Oneata, Moce,
Komo, Namuka-i-Lau,
Kabara, Vulaga, Ogea
an Vatoa; spoken as
seicont leid in the
rest o Fiji
Native speakers 340,000  (1996 census)
320,000 seicont-leid uisers (1991)
Leid faimlie
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in Fiji
Leid codes
ISO 639-1 fj
ISO 639-2 fij
ISO 639-3 fij

Fijian is an Austronesian leid o the Malayo-Polynesian faimily spoken in Fiji. It haes 450,000 first-leid speakers,[citation needit] which is mair than hauf the population o Fiji, but anither 200,000 speak it as a seicont leid. The 1997 Constitution established Fijian as an offeecial leid o Fiji, alang wi Inglis an Hindustani, an thare is discussion aboot establishin it as the "naitional leid", tho Inglis an Hindustani would remain offeecial. Fijian is a VOS leid.[1]

Staundart Fijian is based on the leid o Bau, which is an East Fijian leid.

Phonology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The consonant phonemes o Fijian are as shawn in the follaein table:

  Labial Coronal Palatal Velar
Nasal m n   ŋ
Plosive voiceless (p) t   k
prenasalized mb nd   ŋɡ
Fricative voiceless (f) s   (x)
voiced β ð  
Trill plain   r    
prenasalized   ɳɖr    
Approximant   l j w

The consonant written ⟨nr⟩ haes been describit as a prenasalized trill [nr] or trilled fricative [ndr]. Houivir, it is anly rarely pronoonced wi a trilled release; the primary featur distinguishin it frae ⟨nd⟩ is that it is postalveolar, [ɳɖ], rather than dental/alveolar.[2]

The soonds [p] an [f] occur anly in loanwirds frae ether leids. The soonds [x] an [h] anly occur for speakers frae certain regions o the kintra.

Note the asymmetry atween the fricative pairs: bilabial [β] vs. labiodental [f], an dental [ð] vs. alveolar [s].

The vowel phonemes are:

Monophthongs
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a
Diphthongs
Closing
to /i/
Closing
to /u/
First component is /e/ ei̯ eu̯
First component is /o/ oi̯ ou̯
First component is /a/ ai̯ au̯

In addition, there is the risig diphthong i̯u.

Syllables can consist o a consonant follaeed bi a vowel (CV) or a single vowel (V).[3] Wird stress is based on moras; a short vowel coonts as ane mora, diphthongs an lang vowels coont as twa moras. Primary wird stress then gangs tae the penultimate mora o the phonological wird. That is, if the last syllable o a wird is short, then the penultimate syllable will be stressed. If the last syllable consists o either a lang vowel or a diphthong, the last syllable receives primary stress. That is, stress is on the penultimate mora. Stress is nae lexical an can shift when suffixes are attached tae the ruit. Examples:

  • Stress on the penultimate syllable (final short vowel): síga, "day";
  • Stress on the final syllable (diphthong): cauravóu, "youth" (the stress extends ower the whole diphthong).
  • Stress shift: rábe, "kick" → rabé-ta, "kick-TR"[4]

Orthografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Fijian alphabet is based on the Laitin script an consists o the follaein letters.

A B C D E F G I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y
a b c d e f g i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w y

Amang the consonants, thare is almaist a ane-tae-ane correspondence atween letters an phonemes:

  • b = [mb]
  • c = [ð]
  • d = [nd] (di = [ndʒi])
  • f = [f]
  • g = [ŋ]
  • j = [tʃ] ~ [ndʒ]
  • k = [k]
  • l = [l]
  • m = [m]
  • n = [n] nr = [ɳɖ]
  • p = [p]
  • q = [ŋɡ]
  • r = [r]
  • s = [s]
  • t = [t] (ti = [tʃi])
  • v = [β]
  • w = [ɰ]
  • y = [j] or silent

Note that for phonological reasons ti an di are pronoonced [tʃi], [ndʒi] rather than [ti], [ndi] (cf. Japanese chi kana). Hence, the Fijian name for Fiji, Viti, frae an allophonic pronunciation o [βitʃi] as [ɸidʒi].

In addeetion, the digraph dr staunds for postalveolar [n̠d̠], or a prenasalized trill [n̠ᵈ̠r̠] in careful pronunciation, or mair commonly for some fowk an in some dialects.

The vowel letters a e i o u hae roughly thair IPA values, [a ɛ~e i ɔ~o u]. The vowel length contrast is nae uisually indicatit in writin, except in dictionaries an textbeuks for learners o the leid, whaur it is indicatit bi a macron ower the vowel in question; Dixon, in the wirk citit belaw, doobles aw lang vowels in his spellin seestem. Diphthongs are ai au ei eu oi ou an iu, pronoonced [ɛi̯ ɔu̯ ei̯ eu̯ oi̯ ou̯ i̯u].

Syntax[eedit | eedit soorce]

The normal Fijian wird order is VOS (verb–object–subject):

  • E rai-c-a (1) na no-na (2) vale (3) na gone (4).
  • 3-sg.-sub. see-trans.-3-sg.-obj. (1) the 3-sg.-poss. (2) house (3) the child (4).
  • (The bairn sees his hoose.)

The naitional leid debate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Naitional leid debate in Fiji

In Mey an Juin 2005, a nummer o prominent Fiji Islanders cried for the status o Fijian tae be upgradit. It wis nae an offeecial leid afore the adoption o the 1997 Constitution, which made it co-offeecial wi Inglis an Hindustani. It is still nae a compulsory subject in schuils, however; the present Eddication Meenister, Ro Teimumu Kepa, haes endorsed caws for it tae be made so, as haes Great Cooncil o Chiefs Chairman Ratu Ovini Bokini. Similar caws came frae Misiwini Qereqeretabua, the Director o the Institute o Fijian Leid an Cultur, an frae Apolonia Tamata, a lingueestics lecturer at Suva’s Varsity o the Sooth Paceefic, who baith said that recognition o the Fijian leid is essential tae the naition’s basic identity, as a unifyin factor in Fiji’s multicultural society.

Fiji Labour Pairty leader Mahendra Chaudhry an aa endorsed the caw for Fijian tae be made a naitional leid an a compulsory schuil subject, providit that the same status be given tae Hindi—a poseetion echoed bi Krishna Vilas o the Naitional Reconciliation Committee.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. [1] WALS - Fijian
  2. Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.  p 122, 131. The authors uise the transcription ⟨nḍ⟩, whaur the sub-dot is thair convention for a postalveolar stap that is nae prototypically retroflex.
  3. Dixon 1988:15.
  4. Dixon 1988:17

Soorces[eedit | eedit soorce]

See also[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]