Edirne

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Edirne
Toun
Selimiye Mosque, commissioned bi Selim II an designed bi Mimar Sinan in 1575.
Edirne is located in Turkey
Edirne
Edirne
Location o Edirne athin Turkey.
Coordinates: 41°40′N 26°34′E / 41.667°N 26.567°E / 41.667; 26.567
Kintra Banner o Turkey Turkey
Region Marmara
Province Edirne
Government
 • Mayor Hamdi Sedefçi (CHP)
Area[1]
 • Destrict 829.93 km2 (320.44 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 148,474
 • Destrict 162,161
 • Destrict Density 200/km2 (510/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Licence plate 22

Edirne (Turkis pronunciation: [eˈdiɾne]) (formerly Adrianople) is a ceety in Eastren Thrace, the northwastren pairt o Turkey, close tae the borders wi Greece an Bulgarie. Edirne servit as the third caipital ceety o the Ottoman Empire frae 1413 tae 1453, afore Constantinople (Istanbul) became the empire's new caipital. At present, Edirne is the caipital o the Edirne Province in Turkis Thrace. The ceety's estimatit population in 2010 wis 138,793, up frae 119,298 in 2000. It haes consulates o Bulgarie, Germany (Honorar), Greece, Romanie (Honorar) an Slovakie (Honorar). Thare is a Jewish commonty.[3]

Etymologie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety wis foondit as Hadrianopolis (Aδριανούπολις in Greek), namit for the Roman Emperor Hadrian. This name is still uised in the Modren Greek (Αδριανούπολη). The Inglis name Adrianople, bi which the ceety wis kent till the Turkish Postal Service Law o 1930, haes fawen intae disuise. Turkis: Edirne‎, Bulgarie: Одрин (Odrin, [’odrin]), Albanie: Edrêne, Macedonie: Eдрене (Edrene) an Serbie: Једрене / Jedrene are adaptit forms o the name Hadrianopolis or o its Turkis version; see an aw its other names.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The aurie aroond Edirne haes been the steid o nae fewer than 16 major battles or sieges, frae the days o the auncient Greeks. Militar historian John Keegan identifees it as "the maist contestit spot on the globe" an attributes this tae its geographical location.

Kasr-ı Adalet (Touer o Juistice)

Accordin tae Greek meethologie, Orestes, son o keeng Agamemnon, built this ceety as Orestias, at the confluence o the Tonsus (Toundja) an the Ardiscus (Arda) wi the Hebrus (Maritza). The ceety wis (re)foondit eponymously bi the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the steid o a previous Thracian dounset kent as Uskadama, Uskudama or Uskodama or Uscudama . It wis the caipital o the Bessi.[4] or o the Odrysians. Hadrian developit it, adorned it wi monuments, chyngit its name tae Hadrianopolis, an made it the caipital o the Roman province o Haemimont, or Thrace. Licinius wis defeatit thare bi Constantine I in 323, an Valens wis killed bi the Goths in 378 durin the Battle o Adrianople (378). In 813 the ceety wis seisit bi Khan Krum o Bulgarie who muivit its inhabitants tae the Bulgarie lands towards the north o the Danube.

Durin the existence o the Laitin Empire o Constantinople, the Crusaders wur decisively defeatit bi the Bulgarie Emperor Kaloyan in the battle o Adrianople (1205). Later Theodore Komnenos, Despot o Epirus, teuk possession o it in 1227, an three years later wis defeatit at Klokotnitsa bi Asen, Emperor o the Bulgaries.

Symbolic inscription consistin o twa "waw" letters on the waws o the Eski Cami (Auld Mosque, kent as Ulu Cami an aw, meanin Grand Mosque) built atween 1403 an 1414.[5]

The date o the captur o the toun bi the Turks is discussed, the various years proponit bi historians rangin frae 1361 tae 1371. Frae the reign o Ottoman Sultan Murad I to 1453, Edirne served as the caipital ceety o the Ottoman Empire, till the Ottoman conquest o Constantinople (Istanbul) which became the empire's new caipital.

Unner Ottoman rule Adrianople wis the principal ceety o a vilayet (province) o the same name, baith o which wur later renamit as Edirne. Sultan Mehmed II, the conqueror o Constantinople, wis born in Adrianople. It wis here that he fell unner the influence o some Hurufis kent as Certain accursed anes o nae significance, who wur burnt as heretics bi Mahmut Paşa.[6]

Sultan Mehmed IV left the palace in Constantinople an dee'd in Edirne in 1693.

Bahá'u'lláh, the foonder o the Bahá'í Faith, livit in Edirne frae 1863 tae 1868. He wis exiled thare bi the Ottoman Empire afore bein banished further tae the Ottoman penal colony in Akka. He referred tae Edirne in his writins as the "Laund o Meestery".[7]

Ottoman külliye an hospital built bi Bayezid II

Edirne wis a sanjak centre durin the Ottoman period an wis boond tae, successively, the Rumeli Eyalet an Silistre Eyalet afore becomin a province centre at the beginnin o the 19t century. Edirne Province comprised the sanjaks o Edirne, Tekfurdağı, Gelibolu, Filibe an İslimye afore 1878.

Rectorate o Trakya Varsity

Edirne wis briefly occupee'd bi imperial Roushie troops in 1829, durin the Greek War o Unthirldom; an in 1878, durin the Rousho-Turkis War o 1877-1878. The ceety suffered greatly in 1905 frae a conflagration. In 1905 it haed aboot 80,000 inhabitants, o whom 30,000 wur Muslims (Turks an some Albanies, Roma an Circassies); 22,000 Greeks; 10,000 Bulgaries; 4,000 Armenies; 12,000 Jews; an 2,000 mair ceetizens o nan-classifiable ethnic/releegious backgrunds. Edirne wis a vital fortress defendin Ottoman Constantinople an Eastren Thrace durin the Balkan Wars o 1912–13. It wis briefly occupee'd bi the Bulgaries in 1913, follaein the Battle o Odrin; an bi the Greeks atween the Treaty o Sèvres in 1920 an the end o the Turkis War o Unthirldom in 1922.

Accordin tae the 2007 census, Edirne Province haed a population o 382,222 inhabitants. The ceety is a thrivin centre o commerce for woven textiles, silks, carpets an agricultural products.

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1400s 15,000
1700s 25,000 +66.7%
1800s 40,000 +60.0%
1900s 68,661 +71.7%
1927 34,528 −49.7%
1990 102,345 +196.4%
2000 119,298 +16.6%
2007 136,070 +14.1%
2008 138,054 +1.5%
2009 141,570 +2.5%
[8]

Ecclesiastical history[eedit | eedit soorce]

Adrianople wis made the seat o a Greek metropolitan an o a Gregorian Armenie bishop, Adrianople is the centre o a Bulgarie diocese an aw, but no recognisit an deprivit o a bishop. The ceety haed some Protestants an aw. The Laitin Catholics, foreigners for the maist pairt, an no numerous, wur dependent o the vicariate-apostolic o Constantinople. At Adrianople itsel wur the pairish o St. Anthony o Padua (Minors Conventual) an a schuil for girls conductit bi the Sisters o Charity o Agram. In the suburb o Karaağaç wur a kirk (Minor Conventuals), a schuil for boys (Assumptionists) an a schuil for girls (Oblates o the Assumption). Each o its mission stations, at Tekirdağ an Alexandroupoli, haed a schuil (Minor Conventuals), an thare wis ane at Gallipoli (the Assumptionists).

Aroond 1850, frae the staundpoint o the Oriental Catholics, Adrianople wis the residence o a Bulgarie vicar-apostolic for the 4,600 Uniats o the Ottoman vilayet (province) o Thrace an efter 1878 - o the principality o Bulgarie. They haed 18 pairishes or missions, 6 o which wur in the principality, wi 20 kirks or chapels, 31 priests, o whom 6 wur Assumptionists an 6 wur Resurrectionists; 11 schuils wi 670 pupils. In Adrianople itsel wur anerly a vera few Unitit Bulgaries, wi a Episcopal kirk o St. Elias, an the kirks o St. Demetrius an Sts. Cyril an Methodius. The last is servit bi the Resurrectionists, who hae a college o 90 pupils an aw. In the suburb o Karaağaç, the Assumptionists hae a pairish an a seminar wi 50 pupils. Besides the Uniate Bulgaries, the abuin statistics includit the Greek Catholic missions o Malgara (nou Malkara) an Daoudili (nou Davuteli veelage in Malkara), wi 4 priests an 200 faithful, acause frae the ceevil point o view belangit tae the Bulgarie Vicariate.

Later housomeivver, the Roman Catholic diocese wis discontinued, an exists anerly in name as a titular metropolitan airchbishopric, unner the full name Hadrianopolis in Haemimonto tae distinguish it frae several ither titular sees namit Hadrianopolis.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Edirne haes a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa). wi lang, hot simmers an cauld an occasionally snawy winters.

Climate data for Edirne
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 20.5
(68.9)
23.2
(73.8)
28.0
(82.4)
29.8
(85.6)
35.3
(95.5)
42.6
(108.7)
44.1
(111.4)
40.7
(105.3)
37.8
(100.0)
35.8
(96.4)
28.0
(82.4)
22.8
(73.0)
28
(82.4)
Average heich °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
9.4
(48.9)
13.5
(56.3)
19.3
(66.7)
24.7
(76.5)
29.3
(84.7)
31.7
(89.1)
31.6
(88.9)
27.1
(80.8)
20.5
(68.9)
13.6
(56.5)
8.1
(46.6)
19.63
(67.33)
Average laich °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
0.3
(32.5)
2.9
(37.2)
7.1
(44.8)
11.4
(52.5)
15.4
(59.7)
17.3
(63.1)
17.1
(62.8)
13.3
(55.9)
9.1
(48.4)
4.7
(40.5)
1.1
(34.0)
8.27
(46.88)
Record laich °C (°F) −19
(−2.2)
−19
(−2.2)
−12
(10.4)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.7
(33.3)
6.0
(42.8)
9.3
(48.7)
9.4
(48.9)
4.2
(39.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
−6.6
(20.1)
−13.4
(7.9)
−19
(−2.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 53.4
(2.102)
48.9
(1.925)
50.2
(1.976)
45.3
(1.783)
39.2
(1.543)
34.2
(1.346)
26.5
(1.043)
38.1
(1.5)
52.8
(2.079)
69.0
(2.717)
63.8
(2.512)
Avg. rainy days 11.5 8.1 9.3 10.3 10.0 8.0 5.5 4.8 4.9 7.1 10.4 12.9 102.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 74.4 103.6 142.6 192.0 263.5 294.0 328.6 310.0 234.0 161.2 99.0 68.2 2,271.1
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [9]

Cultur, steids an pairtnership wi Europe[eedit | eedit soorce]

Edirne Municipality

Situatit near the Greek (7 km) an Bulgarie (20 km) borders, this ceety is famit for its mony mosques, domes an minarets. Adrianople contains the ruins o the auncient palace o the Ottoman Sultans an the Selimiye Mosque, ane o the maist important monuments in this auncient province; built in 1575 an designed bi Turkey's greatest maister airchitect, Mimar Sinan, it haes the heichest minarets in Turkey, at 70.9 metres an a cupola three or fower feet heicher than that o Hagia Sophia Byzantine Orthodox Cathedral ( museum) in Istanbul. Carryin the name o the then reignin the Ottoman Sultan Selim II, this mosque represents Turkis marble handicrafts an it is covered wi valuable tiles an fine paintins.

Another notable biggin is the Trakya Varsity's Bayezid II Külliye Halth Museum, an important monument wi its complex construction comprisin mony facilities uised in those times.

Besides the mosques, thare are different steids tae be visitit in Edirne, aw reflectin its rich past. The maist prominent place bein the Edirne Palace, which wis the "Palace o the Empire" built durin the reign o Murad II. Thare are caravansaries, like the Rustem Pasha an Ekmekcioglu Ahmet Pasha caravansaries, which wur designed tae host travelers, in the 16t century.

A cultural partnership wi Lörrach in Germany haes been stairtit in 2006. The goal is tae exchynge pupils an students tae impruive their cultural skills an unnerstaundin.

Festivals[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ile-warstlin at Kırkpınar

Edirne is hame tae the tradeetional ile-warstlin turnament cried Kırkpınar. Held every year in June, it is said tae be the auldest active sport organisation efter the Olympic Gemmes that wur refoondit anerly efter centuries o inactivity.

Anither internaitional festival in Edirne is Kakava, a celebration o Romani fowk held on 5 Mey each year.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Edirne's economy lairgely depends on agricultur. 73% o the wirkin population wirk in agricultur, fishin, forests, huntin. Thare are lots o things that are cultivatit here. Its lawlands are productive. The field crop cultivation haes developit so hintle here. Corn, succarbeet an sunflouer are the first. Melon, wattermelon an vinicultur are advancit. For the last decade, the agricultural products hae doubled. Corn, rice, sunflouer, succarbeet, tomato, eggplant, melon, wattermelon, grape are cultivatit so hintle.

The throu heich-gate wi a important role in global transport that connects Europe tae Middle East an Anatolie tae Istanbul passes throu Edirne.

An aw, the existence o mony historical an natural touristic places an events lead the fact that tourism haes become a leadin component o the economic growthe o the ceety in recent years.

Industry haes been developin an aw. Agricultur-based industries (agro-industries) are especially important for the ceety's economy.

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Trakya Varsity Congress Center

Heich Schuils[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Beykent Educational Institutions
  • 80th Year o Republic Anatolie Heich Schuil (80. Yıl Cumhuriyet Anadolu Lisesi in Turkis)
  • Edirne Anatolie Technical Heich Schuil (Edirne Anadolu Teknik Lisesi in Turkis)
  • Edirne Heich Scheul (Anatolie Heich Schuil) (Edirne Lisesi in Turkis)
  • Edirne Yildirim Anatolie Heich Schuil (Edirne Anadolu Lisesi - Yıldırım Anadolu Lisesi in Turkis)
  • Edirne Anatolie Teacher Trainin Heich Schuil (Edirne Anadolu Öğretmen Lisesi in Turkis)
  • Edirne Suleyman Demirel Science & Maths Heich Schuil (Edirne Fen Lisesi in Turkis)
  • Edirne İlhami Ertem Heich Schuil (Edirne İlhami Ertem Lİsesi in Turkis)
  • Edirne Milli Piyango Trade Profession Heich Schuil (Edirne Milli Piyango Ticaret Meslek Lisesi)
  • Edirne Beykent Heich Schuil o Science (Özel Edirne Beykent Fen Lisesi)
  • Edirne Beykent Heich Schuil o Anatolian (Özel Edirne Beykent Anadolu Lisesi)
  • Edirne Industrial Vocational Heich Schuil (Edirne Endüstri Meslek Lisesi in Turkis)

Twin ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes an references[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes:

References:

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. Avotaynu: the international review of Jewish genealogy, Volume 14, G. Mokotoff, 1998, p. 40.
  4. The History of Rome, Volume 4 by Theodor Mommsen , 2009, page 53: "... defeated the Bessi in their mountains, took their capital Uscudama (Adrianople), and compelled them to submit to the Roman supremacy
  5. Edirne: Eski Cami - Ulu Cami
  6. The Bektashi Order of Dervishes by John Kingsley Birge, 1982 (p 60 - 62)
  7. "Bahá'í Reference Library - The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Page 196". Reference.bahai.org. 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2011-07-30. 
  8. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Ga惑or A愜oston,Bruce Alan Masters, page 197, 2009
  9. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. Retrieved 2011-07-30. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 41°40′N 26°34′E / 41.667°N 26.567°E / 41.667; 26.567