Dortmund

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Dortmund
Dortmund skyline
Dortmund skyline
Flag of Dortmund
Coat o airms o Dortmund
Dortmund is located in Germany
Dortmund
Dortmund
Coordinates 51°31′N 7°28′E / 51.517°N 7.467°E / 51.517; 7.467
Admeenistration
Kintra Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalie
Admin. region Arnsberg
Destrict urban district
Laird Mayor Ullrich Sierau (SPD)
Basic statistics
Aurie 280.4 km2 (108.3 sq mi)
Elevation 152 m  (499 ft)
Population 572,087 (31 Dizember 2012)[1]
 - Density 2,040 /km2 (5,284 /sq mi)
Ither information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate DO
Postal codes 44001-44388
Aurie codes 0231, 02304
Wabsteid www.dortmund.de

Dortmund ([ˈdɔːdmʊnt] ( listen); Low German: Düörpm; Latin: Tremonia) is a ceety in Germany. It is locatit in the Bundesland o North Rhine-Westphalie. Its population o 580,444 (in December 2010) maks it the 8t lairgest ceety in Germany. It is a pairt o the Ruhr aurie, an urban aurie wi some 5.2 million (2009) inhabitants which is the lairgest urban agglomeration in Germany. It is a pairt o the lairger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region o mair than 12 million fowk an aw.

The river Ruhr flows sooth o the ceety, an the sma river Emscher flows through the municipal aurie. The Dortmund-Ems Canal terminates in the Dortmund Port an aw, which is the lairgest European canal port, an links Dortmund tae the North Sea.

Dortmund is kent as Westphalie's "green metropolis". Nearly hauf the municipal territory consists o watterweys, firthland, agricultur an green spaces wi spacious pairks such as Westfalenpark an the Rombergpark. This contrasts wi nearly a hunder years o extensive coal minin an steel millin athin the ceety limits.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

A sma veelage at the location o Dortmund wis mentioned in offeecial documents from about 880 as Throtmanni[2]. Efter it was destroyed bi a fire, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor haed the town rebuilt in 1152 an residit there for twa years. It became an Imperial Free Ceety in 1220. Durin that century, it wis the "chief ceety" o the Rhine, Westphalia, the Netherlands Circle o the Hanseatic League.

Efter 1320, the ceety appeared in writin as "Dorpmunde", an the 1661 earthquake collapsed the Reinoldikirche. Athin the Proushie Province o Westphalie, Dortmund wis a destrict seat athin Regierungsbezirk Arnsberg til 1875, efter which it wis an urban destrict athin the region. Durin the industrialization o Poushie, Dortmund became a major centre for coal an steel.

Unner Nazi Germany, the synagogue wis destroyed in 1938. An aw, the Aplerbeck Hospital in Dortmund transferred mentally an/or pheesically disabled patients for euthanasia at the Hadamar mental hospital as pairt o the Action T4 (an additional 229 children wur killed in the "Children's Specialist Department", which wis transferred frae Marburg in 1941). Dortmund bombin targets o the Ile Campaign o Warld War II includit Hoesch-Westfalenhütte AG, the "Hoesch-Benzin GmBH" synthetic ile plant, an the Zeche Hansa cokin plant;[3] an bombin destroyed aboot 66 % o the Dortmund hames[4] an aboot 98 % o the inner ceety aurie. The code wird Dortmund wis radioed tae initiate the 1941 Operation Barbarossa campaign against the Soviet Union.

The Allied grund advance intae Germany reached Dortmund in Aprile 1945. The US 95t Infantry Diveesion, attacked the ceety on 12 Aprile 1945 against a spiritit German defense. The diveesion, assistit bi close air support, advancit through the ruins in urban combat an completit its captur on 13 Aprile 1945.[5]

Post-war, biggins such as the Reinoldikirche an Marienkirche (churches) wur restored/rebuilt, an extensive pairks an gardens wur laid oot. The LWL-Industriemuseum began in 1969,[6] an the ceety subsequently became a centre for heich-tech industry.

Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cultural history tones are set bi the kirks in the ceety centre whose touers characterise the skyline o Dortmund. The Reinoldikirche an the Marienkirche are gems o medieval airchitectur.

The ceety centre o Dortmund still retains the ootline o the medieval ceety. A ring road marks the umwhile ceety waw, an the Westen-/Ostenhellweg, pairt o a medieval salt tradin route, is still the major (pedestrian) street bisectin the ceety centre.

] (Dortmund auld Tounhaw)
  • Reinoldikirche, a Protestant kirk (built in 1233-1450)
  • Petrikirche, a Protestant kirk (stairt o construction 1322). It is famous for the huge carvit altar (kent as "Gowden Miracle o Dortmund"), frae 1521. It consists o 633 gilt carvit oak figurs depictin 30 scenes aboot Easter.
  • Marienkirche, a Protestant kirk oreeginally built in 1170-1200 but rebuilt efter Warld War II. The altar is frae 1420.
  • U-Touer, umwhile Dortmund Union brewery, nou a museum
  • Florianturm, (televeesion touer Florian)
  • Westfalenstadion: Fitbaa grund o Borussia Dortmund, licensed till 2016 unner the name Signal Iduna Park. Close tae it are the Westfalenhallen, a lairge convention centre, the steid o several major conventions, trade fairs, ice-skeitchin competitions, concerts an ither major events syne the 1950s.
  • Westphalian Industrial Museum Zollern Colliery, an Anchor Point o ERIH, the European Route o Industrial Heritage
  • Hansa Coking Plant
  • Haus Bodelschwingh (13t century), a moatit castle
  • Haus Dellwig (13t century), a moatit castle partly rebuilt in the 17t century. The façade an the steep touer, an twa hauf-timbered biggins, are oreeginal.
  • Haus Rodenberg (13t century), a moatit castle.
  • Altes Stadthaus, built in 1899 bi Friedrich Kullrich
  • Wasserschloss Bodelschwingh
  • Romberg Park Gatehouse (17t century), ance a gatehoose tae a moatit castle. Nou it hooses an airt gallery.
  • RWE Touer (120 metres heich skyscraper — the tawest in Essen)
  • Opernhaus Dortmund, opera hoose built in 1966 on the steid o the auld synagogue which wis destroyed bi the Nazis in 1938.
  • The major airt museums include the Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte an the mair recent Museum Ostwall.

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dortmund is hame o the sport club Borussia Dortmund which wan the UEFA Champions League an the Intercontinental Cup in 1997, as well as the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup against Liverpool in 1966. This made it the first European Cup Winner in Germany. They play at Westfalenstadion, currently kent as Signal Iduna Park. It wis built for the 1974 FIFA Fitbaa Warld Cup an hostit some matches o 2006 FIFA Warld Cup an aw, includin Italy's 2-0 defeat o Germany in the semi-feenals. It is Germany's lairgest fitbaa stadium wi a maximum capacity o 80,720 spectators.[7]
Borussia Dortmund haes a weemen's handbaw team playin in the first Bundesliga an aw, while Borussia's table tennis team an the SVD 49 Dortmund basketbaw team play in their respective seicont naitional diveesions.

Dortmund is the Olympiastützpunkt for Westphalie.

The Sparkassen Chess-Meeting haes been hostit in Dortmund syne 1982.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dortmund Airport is a medium-sizit, but fast growin airport 13 km (8.1 mi) east o the ceety centre at the ceety limit tae Holzwickede.[8] The closest intercontinental airport is Düsseldorf Internaitional Airport.

Dortmund Airport Terminal

The central train station (Dortmund Hauptbahnhof) is the third lairgest lang distance traffic junction in Germany.

Dortmund Harbour (Hafen) is the lairgest canal harbour in Europe an the 11t fluvial harbour in Germany.

Dortmund serves as a major European an German crossroads for the Autobahnsystem an aw. The Ruhrschnellweg follaes auld Hanseatic trade routes tae connect the ceety wi the ither metropolises o the Ruhr aurie. Connections tae the mair destant pairts o Germany are maintained bi the A1 an the A2 which pass closely tae the north an east o the ceety an cross each ither at the Kamener Kreuz interchynge northeast o Dortmund. Thegither wi the A45 in the wast they built the Dortmund Beltway (Dortmunder Autobahnring).

For public transportation, the ceety haes an extensive Stadtbahn an bus seestem. In Aprile 2008, the newly constructit east-wast unnergrund licht rail line wis opened, completin the unnergrund service in the ceety centre an replacin the last trams on the surface.[9]

The H-Bahn at Dortmund University o Technology is a hangin monorail built specifically tae shuttle passengers atween the university's twa campuses,[10] which are nou flankit bi research laboratories an ither heich-tech corporations an stairtups an aw. A nearly identical monorail seestem transfers passengers at Düsseldorf Internaitional Airport.[11]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

As o 2010, Dortmund haed a population o 580.400 o whom aboot 180.000 (~30%) wur o nan-German oreegin.

Number o minorities (1st an 2nt generation) in Dortmund bi kintra o oreegin per 31 December 2009 [12]

Ancestry Number
Germans 69.5%
Ither European 15%
Turks 8%
Africans 3%
Asies 2%
Mixed/Ither 2.5%

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dortmund haes historically been an industrial aurie. Dortmund is nou hame tae a number o medium-sizit information technology companies,[13] mony linkit tae the local university TechnologieZentrumDortmund program.[14] The ceety wirks closely wi research institutes, private universities, an companies tae collaborate on the commercialization o science initiatives.[15]

In 2009, Dortmund wis classifeed as a Node ceety in the Innovation Ceeties Index published bi 2thinknow.[16]

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The politics o Dortmund are dominatit bi the social-democratic SPD. Syne Warld War II, the SPD haes been the biggest pairty on the toun cooncil (German: Stadtrat). Syne the 2004 local election, there hae been 9 pairties an electors' groups on the toun cooncil (88 seats; 1999: 82 seats):

Pairty Pairty Leet votes Vote percentage Total Seats Seat percentage
Social Democratic Pairty (SPD) 92,509 41.3% (-0.3) 36 (+2) 40.9%
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 73,282 32.7% (-9.0) 29 (-5) 33.0%
Alliance '90/The Greens (Grüne) 25,635 11.5% (+2.6) 10 (+2) 11.4%
Free Democratic Pairty (FDP) 8,591 3.8% (+2.0) 3 (+2) 3.4%
German Fowkunion (DVU) 6,880 3.1% (+1.1) 3 (+1) 3.4%
Citizens' List (Bürgerliste) 6,874 3.1% (+0.5) 3 (+1) 3.4%
Party of Democratic Socialism-Open List (PDS-OL) 6,346 2.8% (+2.8) 2 (+2) 2.3%
Left Alliance Dortmund (Linkes Bündnis Dortmund) 1,751 0.8% (-0.2) 1 (=) 1.1%
Law an Order Offensive Pairty (Offensive D) 1,669 0.7% (+0.7) 1 (+1) 1.1%
Town-Greens (Stadtgrüne) 265 0.1% (+0.1) 0 (=) 0.0%
Totals 223,802 100.0% 88 (+6) 100.0%

Syne May 2010, the laird mayor o Dortmund is Ullrich Sierau (SPD). He leads a coalition made up o SPD an Grüne.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety haes a lang tradition o muisic an theatre. The orchestra was founded in 1887 and is now cried Dortmunder Philharmoniker. The first opera hoose wis built in 1904, destroyed in Warld War II an opened again in 1966 as Opernhaus Dortmund. It is operatit bi Theater Dortmund thegither wi ither locations, includin (syne 2002) the Konzerthaus Dortmund. The Dortmund U-Tower in umwhile times a brewery is nou center o creative industries an the Museum am Ostwall The ceety is namesake for the Dortmunder style beer an is hame tae the Dortmunder Actien Brauerei.

Twin touns — sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dortmund is twinned wi:[17]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 31 July 2013. 
  2. Rudolf Kötzschke (Hrsg.): Die Urbare der Abtei Werden a. d. Ruhr (= Publikationen der Gesellschaft für rheinische Geschichtskunde XX: Rheinische Urbare). Bd. 2: A. Die Urbare vom 9.-13. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Rudolf Kötzschke, Bonn 1908, Nachdruck Düsseldorf 1978, Bd. 3: B. Lagerbücher, Hebe- und Zinsregister vom 14. bis ins 17. Jahrhundert, Bonn 1908, Nachdruck Düsseldorf 1978, Bd. 4,I: Einleitung und Register. I. Namenregister. Hrsg. von Fritz Körholz, Düsseldorf 1978, Bd. 4,II: Einleitung, Kapitel IV: Die Wirtschaftsverfassung und Verwaltung der Großgrundherrschaft Werden. Sachregister. Hrsg. von Rudolf Kötzschke, Bonn 1958
  3. "Historisches Centrum Hagen : Chronik 1945" (in German). Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  4. A. Schildt, Die Sozialgeschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland bis 1989/90, Munich: Oldenbourg, 2007
  5. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 171.
  6. "LWL-Industriemuseum". Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  7. "Fakten & Kurioses". Signal Induna Park official website. Retrieved 10 February 2011. 
  8. "Arriving by car - Dortmund Airport". Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  9. "Neuer U-Bahn-Tunnel: keine Straßenbahn mehr in Dortmunder City". Oliver Volmerich. 2008-04-25. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  10. "H-Bahn - Route map". Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  11. "H-Bahn - Sky-Train Düsseldorf". Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  12. http://dev.statistik.dortmund.de/project/assets/template1.jsp?col=2&content=me&smi=10.2.4&tid=66334
  13. "The new Dortmund - space for change". Stadt Dortmund - City of Dortmund Economic Development Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  14. "The new Dortmund - space for change". Stadt Dortmund - City of Dortmund Economic Development Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  15. "The new Dortmund - space for change". Stadt Dortmund - City of Dortmund Economic Development Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  16. "2thinknow Innovation Cities Global 256 Index". Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". © 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved 2009-10-28. [deid airtin]
  18. "Leeds - Dortmund partnership". Leeds.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  19. "Netanya - Twin Cities". Netanya Municipality. Archived from the original on 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Media relatit tae Dortmund at Wikimedie Commons

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