Cruithne

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The Cruithne or Cruthin wis historical fowk that dwalt in Ireland, in parteecular Ulster, in early medieval times.

Gaun by T. F. O'Rahilly's historical model, the Cruithne wis the descendants o the Priteni, that O'Rahilly argies wis the first Celtic group tae dwall in the Breetish Isles, an identifee's them as the Pechts o Scotland. They settelt in Breetain an Ireland atween 700 an 500 BC. They uised airn an spak a P-Celtic leid, cryin thirsels Priteni or Pritani, whit is aiblins the oreegin o the name "Breetain".

In Breetain thir Priteni wis absorbed bi later invaders an tint their cultural identity but in the faur north whaur they wis kent tae the Romans as Picti, or “pentit fowk,” acause o their practice o decoratin their bouk wi pent or tattoos (a haunt that had dee'd amang ither Celtic tribes at the time). In Ireland an aw, the Priteni wis tae the maist pairt absorbed bi later settlers; but a puckle o them managed tae haud on tae a meisur o cultural, gin no poleetical, independence weel intae the Christian era. Bi thon time they wis identifee'd as Cruithne, a Q-Celtic cognate o Priteni.

Amang the Cruthnian tribes that survived wis the Loíges an Fothairt in Leinster. The name o the seicont o thir tribes - modrenised as Laois - haes been revived an gien tae ane o the coonties o Leinster (syne kent as Queen's Coonty).

Cruithne is the name o the Pechts in Scots Gaelic.

Some fowk jalouses that the Scots wird creenie cam fae this, bein uised as a contemptous wird for a race o stumpy, daurk fowk that bade in the Rhinns o Gallowa. Fae thon it haes been applee'd tae fowk fae Ireland. A mair liklier etymology is that its juist a form o the wird crine meanin skrinkit. Anither wird that haes been uised for daurk haired "Irish" fowk is Gossocks. Some threaps this comes fae Welsh gwasog, a kynd o servand. That isna likely acause that means the wird maun hae survived at least nine centuries throu the Gaelic an Scots-speakin times o Gallowa.