Clan Hay

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Clan Hay
Crest badge
Crest: Issuin oot o a crest coronet a falcon volant Proper, airmed, jessed an beltit Or
Motto: SERVA JUGUM
Slogan: "A Hay! A Hay!"
Profile
Plant badge Mistletoe
Animal Falcon
Gaelic name MacGaraidh
Chief

Earl of Erroll arms.svg
The Rt. Hon. Merlin Sereld Hay
The 24t Earl o Erroll
Seat Woodbury Hall.[1]
Historic seat Slains Castle



Ane o the Hay tartans. Frae Vestiarium Scoticum.

Clan Hay is a Scots clan that haes played an important pairt in the history an politics o Scotland. Members o the clan are tae be foond in maist pairts of Scotland an in mony ither pairts o the warld. Housomeivver, the North East o Scotland, i.e. Aiberdeenshire Aiberdeenshire (historic), Banffshire, Morayshire an Nairnshire Nairn (bundaries), is the hert o Hay kintra wi ither significant concentrations o Hays being foond in Perthshire, especially aroond Perth, in the Scots Borders, an in Shetland.

Oreegin o the name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The family name is derived frae that o several veelages cried La Haye in the Cotentin peninsula o Normandy, Fraunce.[2][3] The wird, haye comes frae haia, a hedge, which in modren French is haie.[2] It can an aa mean "stockade",[3] but it mey hae been uised here acause this pairt o Normandy is characterized bi centuries-auld interlockin hedgeraes (bocage).[4] The French, de la Haye,[5] appears in Laitin documents as de Haya[3][6][7] The name haes evolved intae Inglis as Hay[7][8] and rendered into Gaelic as Garadh.[3][7][9] Accordin tae George Fraser Black, the Gaelic form o Hay, MacGaradh, wis merely an invention o John Hay Allan, an aa kent as John Sobieski Stuart, author o the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum.[10]

Legend o Luncarty[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are twa ways tae approach the oreegins o Clan Hay. The first is the Legend of Luncarty, which is an important Hay tradition, while the seicont is based on historical research, albeit that inconsistencies tend tae occur efter so mony centuries. Hector Boece, the Scots academic, wrote the first kent account of the Luncarty legend in his Scotorium Historia, which wis initially published in 1525, wi a seicont edition being published posthumously in 1575.[11] There are numerous versions o the legend that are based upon Boece’s wirk but which include various embellishments. In contrast, George Buchanan’s accoont in his Rerum Scoticarum Historia, published in 1582 an derived frae Boece’s wirk, omits ony reference tae the hawk’s flicht delineatin the land grant.[12] In 2010, Sutton published a hypertext edition, in baith Laitin an Inglis, o Boece’s 1575 edition o the Historia, thus providin ready access tae his oreeginal accoont o the legend.[11] The version o the legend quotit belaw is frae John Burke (genealogist)'s "Peerage",1832 edition.[13]

"The traditional oreegin o the noble hoose o Hay is thus relatit:— In the reign o Kenneth III, anno 980, the Danes, who haed invadit Scotland, haein prevailed, at the battle o Luncarty, near Perth, wur pursuin the flyin Scots, frae the field, when a kintraman an his twa sons appeared in a narrae pass, through which the vanquisht wur hurryin, an impedit for a moment their flicht. "Wha," said the rustic, "haed ye rather be slaughtered bi your merciless foes, than dee honorably in the field; come, rally, rally!" an he heidit the fugitives, brandishin his ploughshare, an cryin oot, that help wis at hand: the Danes, believin that a fresh airmy wis fallin upon them, fled in confusion, an the Scots thus recovered the laurel which they haed lost, an freed their kintraside frae servitude. The battle being wan, the auld man, efterwards kent bi the name o Hay, wis brought tae the keeng, who, assemblin a parliament at Scone, gave tae the said Hay an his sons, as a juist reward for their valour, so muckle land on the Tay River, in the destrict o Gowrie, as a falcon frae a man's haund flew ower till it settled; which being sax miles in length, wis efterwards cried Errol; an the keeng being desirous tae elevate Hay an his sons frae their humble rank in life, tae the order o nobility, his majesty assigned them a coat o airms, which wis argent, three escutcheons, gules, tae intimate that the faither an twa sons haed been the three fortunate shields o Scotland."

The reliability o the legend haes aften been challenged. For instance, the Scots historian John Hill Burton strangly suspectit the battle o Luncarty tae be an invention o Hector Boece,[14][15] an Sir James Balfour Paul, notin that armorial bearins did no occur in Scotland till lang efter 980 (when the battle is said tae hae taken place), referred tae Hector Beoce as "an incorrigible auld liar" in this an ither stories.[14] Cosmo Innes, further notin that surnames did no occur in Scotland till lang efter 980, states that the name Hay haes as oreegin a place name in Normandy.[14] This last point is discussed in the section, Oreegin o the Name, o this airticle.

Slains Pursuivant, Peter Drummond-Murray o Mastrick, is the private officer o airms o the Chief o Clan Hay

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

William II de Haya[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: William II de Haya

Clan Hay descends frae the Norman family o de la Haye (de Haya). The progenitors o the Scots clan wir William II de Haya an his wife, Eva o Pitmilly, a Celtic heiress. William II de Haya wis the son o William I de Haya an his Norman wife, Juliana de Soulis, sister tae Ranulf I de Soules. He wis the first recordit Hay in Scotland, is kent tae hae been in the Scots court in 1160, wis cup-bearer tae Malcolm IV o Scotland an William I o Scotland, an wis made the first Baron o Erroll bi William I. He dee'd suin efter 1201 an wis succeedit bi his eldest son, David.

Connection tae the de La Haye o Normandy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The oreegins o the Hays o Erroll wur investigatot aroond 1954 bi Wagner[16] who presentit evidence, based lairgely on heraldry, that the Scots Hays wur descendit frae de La Haye o La Haye-Hue in the Cotentin Peninsula o Normandy. That evidence begins wi a seal uised bi David de Haya (Haia), the son o William II de Haya, on a chairter aroond 1230. It shows the airms o airgent three inescutcheons gules, i.e., a siller shield containin three smawer red shields, an are the same airms presently uised bi the Earl o Erroll. They bear nae resemblance tae those o the de La Haye o Ingland, but they are the same as those uised bi Jean de La Haye-Hue in Normandy aroond 1368-1375. The de La Haye o La Haye Hue can be traced back tae the 12t century, that is, when William II de Haya wis first kent tae be in Scotland. Wagner therefore concludit that the Hays o Erroll an the Hayes o La Haye wur relatit. He an aa pointit oot that the Hays wur linked tae the pouerful Normandy family o Soulis Ranulf I de Soules in that La Haye-Hue, nou cried La Haye-Bellefond, is locatit juist athort the sma Soules River frae Soulles, the seat o that family. Seicondly, the Soulis name, rare in Ingland, an the mair common Hay, are baith foond in the records o Dover castle in the early 13t century.

A third point, which Wagner did no mention, is that William I de Haya marriet Juliana de Soulis an these two wur the parents o William II de Haya.[17]

Successors o William II de Haya[eedit | eedit soorce]

David De Haya, who weddit Helen, dochter o Gilbert (or Gille Brigte), Earl o Strathearn, an haed:[18]

  • 1 Gilbert, who succeedit his faither at Erroll, wis ancestor o the Noble hoose o the Earls Errol, which endit in heiresses in 1717: the youngest o whom espoused the Earl o Kilmarnock, an her descendant is nou Earl O Erroll.[18]
  • 2 William De Haya, obtained frae his brither Gilbert, in 1235, a grant o twa carucates o land, in Errol, cried Leys; which grant wis efterwards confirmed, in 1451, bi William, Earl o Errol, tae Edmund Hay, o Leys, the lineal descendant of this William. This branch would later chynged their name tae Hay-Balfour o Leys in the coonty o Perth, an o Randerston, in Fife. Accordin tae John Burk, the Hay-Balfours o Leys are the "male representative o the noble family o Hay".[18]

Gilbert, who succeeded his father at Erroll, wis Sheriff o Perth afore 1262. He wis appointit ane o the regents an guardians tae Keeng Alexander III. He marriet Idonea, dochter o William Comyn, Earl o Buchan, an haed a son, Nicolas.[20]

Wars o Scots Unthirldom[eedit | eedit soorce]

His son, Nicolas de Haya o Erroll wis Sheriff o Perth afore 1288. He swore fealty tae Keeng Edward I on 12 Julie 1296. He wis summoned bi Edward I tae attend parliament at St. Andrews in 1303-04. He had four sons:[21]

The son, Gilbert de Haya of Erroll, swore fealty tae Edward I at Aiberdeen in 1296. Housomeivver, in 1306 he joined Robert the Bruce an continued faithfully tae him throughoot the War o Unthirldom. In consequence Edward I declared Gilbert a traitor, but Robert the Bruce rewardit him wi a chairter ower the lands o Slains in Aiberdeenshire and the office o Constable o the realm o Scotland.[23]

16t century an Anglo-Scots Wars[eedit | eedit soorce]

Durin the Anglo-Scots Wars the Clan Hay suffered vera hivy casualties in the Battle o Flodden in 1513. Anither Hay, an aa named Sir Gilbert, wis a Scots knight who fought for Joan o Arc durin the Hunder Years' War.

Follaein the Reformation, the Hays remained lyal tae Catholicism an thus wur allies tae Mary, Queen o Scots, who appointit George Hay, the 7t Earl o Erroll, Lord Lieutenant o aw central Scotland. Francis Hay, 9t Earl o Erroll, was involved in a conspiracy wi Keeng Philip II o Spain, tae owerthrow Queen Elizabeth o Ingland, convert Keeng James VI tae Catholicism an thus make Breetain a Catholic stranghauld. Wi the defeat o the Spainyie Armada, housomeivver, the conspiracy came tae nothing.

17t century an Ceevil War[eedit | eedit soorce]

Durin the Ceevil War James Hay led his forces as Ryalists against the Covenanters at the Battle o Aiberdeen in 1644 whaur they wur victorious.

18t century an Jacobite Uprisins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Follaein the Act o Union in 1707, the Hays wur sympathetic tae the Jacobite cause. The ruins o their fortress o Slains Castle, on the northeast coast o Scotland, wis a frequent meetin place for Jacobite conspirators. In 1745, the Clan Hay supportit Bonnie Prince Charlie an assistit in financin his rebellion.

Wi the collapse o Jacobotism, the Hays became lyal Breetish subjects, an mony Hays wur involved in expandin the Breetish Empire.

Mistletoe is the clan's plant badge

Clan profile[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Gaelic Names: MacGaraidh (Surname) & Clann 'icGaraidh (Collective).
  • Motto: Serva Jugum (Keep the yoke).
  • Slogan: "A Hay! A Hay!".
  • Pipe Muisic: "Delgaty Castle".
  • Crest: Issuin oot o a Crest Coronet, a falcon volant Proper, airmed, jessed, an belled Or.
  • Clan badge: Mistletoe.
  • Animal Seembol: Falcon.
  • Chief's Airms: Argent, three escutcheons Gules

Chief[eedit | eedit soorce]

Branches[eedit | eedit soorce]

Arms of The Earl of Erroll
Earl
o Erroll
Arms of The Hay of Leys
Hay
o Leys
Arms of Hay of Seafield
Hay
o Seafield
Arms of the Hay of Fudie
Hay
o Fudie
Arms of the Hay of Cardenie
Hay
o Cardenie
Arms of The Hay of Alderston
Hay
o Alderston
Arms of The Hay of Dalgety
Hay
o Dalgety
Arms of The Hay of Megginch
Hay
o Megginch
Arms of The Hay of Leith
Hay
o Leith
Arms of the Hay of Park
Hay
o Park
Arms of the Hay of Naughton
Hay
o Naughton
Arms of the Hay of Strowie
Hay
o Strowie
Arms of The Hay of Pitfour
Hay
o Pitfour
Arms of The Hay of Newhall
Hay
o Newhall
Arms of the Hay of Laxfirth
Hay
o Laxfirth
Arms of the Hay of Letham
Hay
o Letham
Arms of the Hay of Boyne
Hay
o Boyne
Arms of the Hay of Locherworth
Hay
o Locherworth
Arms of the Hay of Broxmouth
Hay
o Broxmouth
Arms of the Marquess of Tweeddale
Marquess
o Tweeddale
Arms of the Lord Hay of Yester
Lord Hay
o Yester
Arms of the Hay of Linplum
Hay
o Linplum
Arms of the Hay of Smithfleld and Haystoun
Hay
o Smithfleld an Haystoun
Arms of the Hay of Kinnoull
Hay
o Kinnoull

Castles[eedit | eedit soorce]

Septs an Tartans[eedit | eedit soorce]

The septs an associatit Families o Clan Hay are:[39]

  • Earl of Erroll arms.svgHay
  • de la Haye
  • MacHay
  • O'Hea
  • Hayson
  • Hayes
  • Hays
  • MacGaradh
  • MacGarra
  • McArra
  • MacGarrow
  • Garra
  • Garrad
  • Garrow
  • O'Garra
  • O'Garrow
  • Leish
  • Hay of Leith arms.jpgLeith
  • Des Hay
  • Peebles Hayton
  • Hayston
  • Haydock
  • Haytor
  • Hayden
  • Hayens
  • Haylees
  • Haynes
  • Hayse
  • Deshays
  • Hay of Alderston arms.jpgAlderston
  • Kellour
  • Hay of Laxfirth arms.svgLaxfirth
  • Hay of Locherworth arms.jpgLocherworth
  • Lord Hay of Yester arms.svgYester
  • Drumelizior
  • Hayfield
  • Ay, Aye
  • Ayer
  • Constable Haywood
  • Hayter
  • Haylor
  • Hayburn
  • Hayward
  • Hayne
  • Haynie
  • Hay of Smithfleld and Haystoun arms.svgHaystoun
  • Hey
  • Haye
  • Heyes
  • De Hay
  • da Hay
  • de Haya
  • da Haya
  • Dellahay
  • de la Hay
  • Hea
  • O'Hay Aue
  • Peeples Gifford
  • Beagrie
  • Marquess of Tweeddale arms.svgTweeddale
  • Delgatie
  • Earl of Erroll arms.svgErroll
  • Hay of Kinnoul arms.jpgKinnoull
  • Slains
  • Turriff
  • Dupplin
  • de Plessis
  • Arroll
  • Conn, Con
  • Hayhoe
  • Hayson
  • Hayhow
  • Hawson
  • D'Aye, D/Ay Peoples
  • (recent additions)
  • Hey - (Holland, Europe)
  • Hej - (from Hey)
  • Geij - (Russian, Polish, from Hej)

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. clanchiefs.org
  2. 2.0 2.1 Black 1946, p.350
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Townsend 1970, p.949
  4. Keegan 1983, p.152
  5. sometimes written as de la Haya or de la Hay
  6. sometimes as de Haia
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Whyte 1996, p.88
  8. Townsend 1970, p. 949
  9. or Garaidh
  10. Black, George Fraser (1946). The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: New York Public Library. pp. 494–495. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sutton,2010
  12. Sutton,2003,2009
  13. A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, p.443, By John Burke, Published by H. Colburn and R. Bentley, 1832; link
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 A Complete Guide to Heraldry; p.415; By Arthur Charles Fox Davies, and Graham Johnston; Published by Kessinger Publishing, 2004; ISBN 1417906308, 9781417906307; link
  15. The History of Scotland from Agricola's Invasion to the Revolution of 1688, By John Hill Burton; p.364-365, Will. Blackwood and Sons, 1867
  16. Wagner 1954,1955
  17. Reg. of Coupar ii, 284.Referenced in Balfour 1906, pp.555-7
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain; p.504; By John Burke; Published by Colburn, 1836; link
  19. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; p. 556; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  20. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; p. 557-558; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  21. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; p. 558-559; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; p. 559; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  23. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; p. 559-560; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  24. "burkes peerage". 
  25. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain; p.507; By John Burke; Published by Colburn, 1836; link
  26. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain; p.507-508; By John Burke; Published by Colburn, 1836; link
  27. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain; p.509; By John Burke; Published by Colburn, 1836; link
  28. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 416; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  29. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 467; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  30. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 454; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  31. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 460; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  32. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 456; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  33. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 449; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  34. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 450; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  35. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 451; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  36. The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom; vol VIII; p. 435; by Paul, James Balfour, Sir, 1846-1931; Edinburgh: D. Douglas; Not in copyright link
  37. The Highland Clans By Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk, Iain Moncreiffe, David Hicks; p. 188; Published by Barrie & Jenkins, 1982; link
  38. http://www.aboutaberdeen.com/slainscastle.php
  39. Septs and Associated Families by Official Website of the Clan Hay

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Balfour, J.P. (1906). The Scots Peerage, Vol.III. Edinburgh: D. Douglas. 

Black, G.F. (1946). The surnames of Scotland; their origin, meaning and history. New York: New York Public Library. 

Keegan, J. (1983). Six Armies in Normandy. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin Books Ltd. 

Sutton, Dana F. (2003, revised 2007). Hist/ "George Buchanan,Rerum Scoticarum Historia (1582). A hypertext critical edition.". Retrieved 7/12/2010. 

Sutton, Dana F. (2010). "Hector Boethius, Scotorum Historia (1575 version). A hypertext critical edition.". Retrieved 7/12/2010. 

Townsend, P (editor) (1970). Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage. London: Burke's Peerage Limited. 

Wagner, A.R. (1954 and 1955). "The origin of the Hays of Erroll". The Genealogist's Magazine. 11 and 12: 535–540 and 1–6. 

Whyte, D (1996). Sottish surnames. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]