Chernobyl

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For ither uisses, see Chernobyl (disambiguation).
Chernobyl (Чернобыль)
Chornobyl (Чорнобиль)
Chernobyl is located in Ukraine
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Location o Chernobyl in Ukraine
Chernobyl is located in Kiev Oblast
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Location o Chernobyl in Kiev Oblast
Coordinates: 51°16′20″N 30°13′27″E / 51.27222°N 30.22417°E / 51.27222; 30.22417
Country Banner o Ukraine Ukraine
Oblast Flag of Kiev Oblast.svg Kiev
Raion Flag Iwankowski Raion.jpg Ivankiv (since 1986)
Foondit 1193
Pronooncit veelage 13t Century
Government
 • Admeenistration State Agency o Ukraine on the Exclusion Zone Management
Population (2010)
 • Total 500 (estimate)
Postal code 07270
Area code(s) +380 4493
A grocery store in Chernobyl. The text on the windae reads, "Café Bar".

Chernobyl or Chornobyl (IPA /tʃɜː(ɹ)ˈnɒb.əl/; Ukrainian: Чорнобиль, pronounced [tʃɔrˈnɔbɪlʲ]; Roushie: Чернобыль‎, pronounced [tɕɪrˈnobɨlʲ]) is a ceety in the restrictit Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situatit in northren Kiev Oblast, Ukraine near the border wi Belaroushie. The ceety haed been the admeenistrative centre o the Chernobyl Raion syne 1932.

The ceety wis evacuatit in 1986 due tae the Chernobyl disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Pouer Plant, locatit 14.5 kilometres (9.0 mi) north-northwast. The pouer plant wis athin Chernobyl Raion (Destrict), but the ceety wis no the residence o the pouer plant wirkers. When the pouer plant wis unner construction, Pripyat, a ceety lairger an closer tae the pouer plant, haed been built as hame for the pouer plant wirkers.

Efter the accident the Chernobyl Raion admeenistration wis transferred tae the neebourin Ivankiv Raion. Tho the ceety the day is maistly uninhabitit, a smaw nummer o fowk reside in hooses markit wi signs statin that the "Awner o this hoose lives here". Wirkers on watch an admeenistrative personnel o the Zone o Alienation are stationed in the ceety on a lang term basis. Prior tae its evacuation, the ceety wis inhabitit bi aboot 14,000 residents.[1] The ceety o Slavutych wis built specifically for the evacuatit population o Chernobyl.

Name oreegin[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety name is the same as a local Ukrainian name for Artemisia vulgaris (mugwirt or common wormwood), which is чорнобиль "chornobyl" an aw.[2] A alternative etymologie haulds that it is a combination o the wirds chornyi (чорний, black) an byllia (билля, grass blades or stalks), hence it wad leeterally mean black grass or black stalks.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Oreeginally pairt o the laund o Kievan Rus Chernobyl first appeared in a chairter o 1193, describit as a huntin-lodge o Knyaz Rostislavich.[3][4] It wis a croun veelage of the Grand Duchy o Lithuanie in the 13t century. The veelage wis grantit as a fiefdom tae Filon Kmita, a caiptain o the ryal cavalry, in 1566. The province conteenin Chernobyl wis transferred tae the Kinrick o Poland in 1569, an then annexed bi the Roushie Empire in 1793.[5] Prior tae the 20t century, Chernobyl wis inhabitit bi Ukrainian an some Pols peasants, an a relatively lairge nummer o Jews.

Chernobyl haed a rich releegious history. The Jews wur brocht bi Filon Kmita, durin the Pols campaign o colonization. The tradeetionally Christian Eastren Orthodox Ukrainian peasantry o the destrict wis lairgely forcit, bi Poland, tae convert tae the Greek Catholic Uniate releegion efter 1596. Yet the vast majority returned tae Eastren Orthodoxy efter the Pairtitions o Poland.

The Dominican kirk an monastery wur foondit in 1626 bi Lukasz Sapieha, at the hicht of the Coonter-reformation. Thare wis a group o Auld Catholics, who opposed the decrees o the Cooncil o Trent. The Dominican monastery wis sequestratit in 1832, follaein the failed Pols November Uprisin, an the kirk o the Auld Catholics wis disbandit in 1852.[3]

In the seicont hauf o the 18t century, Chernobyl became ane o the major centres o Hasidic Judaism. The Chernobyl Hasidic dynasty haed been foondit bi Rabbi Menachem Nachum Twersky. The Jewish population suffered greatly frae pogroms in October 1905 an in Mairch–Apryle 1919, when mony Jews wur killed an ithers wur robbit, at the instigation o the Roushie naitionalist Black Hunders. In 1920, the Twersky dynasty left Chernobyl, an it ceased tae exist as a Hasidic centre.

Syne the 1880s, Chernobyl haes seen mony chynges o fortune. In 1898 Chernobyl haed a population o 10,800, includin 7,200 Jews. In Warld War I the veelage wis occupee'd, an in the ensuin Ceevil War, Chernobyl wis focht ower bi Bolsheviks an Ukrainians. In the Pols-Soviet War o 1919–20, it wis taken first bi the Pols Airmy an then bi cavalry o the Red Airmy. Frae 1921, it wis incorporatit intae the Ukrainian SSR.[3]

Durin the period 1929–33, Chernobyl suffered greatly frae mass killins durin Stalin's collectivization campaign, an in the Holodomor (famine) that follaeed. The Pols commonty o Chernobyl wis deportit tae Kazakhstan in 1936 durin the Frontier Clearances. The Jewish commonty wis murthered durin the German occupation o 1941–44.[3] Twinty years later, the aurie wis chosen as the steid o the first nuclear pouer station on Ukrainian soil.

The Duga-3 over-the-horizon radar array several miles oot o Chernobyl wis the oreegin o the infamous Roushie Woodpecker, designed as pairt o Roushie's anti-ballistic missile early warning radar network.

Wi the dissolution o the Soviet Union in 1991, Chernobyl remained pairt o Ukraine, nou a unthirlt nation.

Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Chernobyl disaster

On 26 Apryle 1986, Reactor #4 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Pouer Plant near the toun o Pripyat, Ukraine, explodit. The explosion teuk place at 1:23am while the neebourin toun o Pripyat slept. Twa wirkers wur killed instantly. 40 oors later, the residents o Pripyat wur ordered tae evacuate, an maist niver returned; bi that time, mony o the residents haed suffered varyin degrees o radiation poisonin.

In 2003, the Unitit Naitions Development Programme launched a project cried the Chernobyl Recovery an Development Programme (CRDP) for the recovery o the affectit auries.[6] The program launched its activities based on the Human Consequences o the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident report recommendations an wis initiatit in Februar 2002. The main goal o the CRDP's activities is supportin the Govrenment o Ukraine tae mitigate lang-term social, economic an ecological consequences o the Chernobyl catastrophe, amang ithers. CRDP wirks in the fower maist Chernobyl-affectit auries in Ukraine: Kiev Oblast, Zhytomyrska Oblast, pairtially Kiev, Chernihivska Oblast an Rivne Oblast.

Chernobyl efter the disaster[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chernobyl wis evacuatit suin efter the disaster. The base o operations for the admeenistration an monitorin o the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone wis muivit frae Pripyat tae Chernobyl. Chernobyl currently conteens offices for the State Agency o Ukraine on the Exclusion Zone Management an accommodation for visitors. Apairtment blocks hae been re-purposed as accommodation for employees o the State Agency. Due tae regulations tae limit exposur wirkers in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone are limitit in the nummer o days per week or weeks per month they stay in Chernobyl.

Chernobylite[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Chernobylite

Chernobylite is the name citit bi twa media sources[7][8] for heichlie radioactive, unuisual an potentially novel crystalline formations foond at the Chernobyl pouer plant efter the explosion. These formations wur foond in the basement belaw Reactor #4 durin a investigation intae missin reactor fuel.[9]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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Coordinates: 51°16′20″N 30°13′27″E / 51.27222°N 30.22417°E / 51.27222; 30.22417