Brassica ( // brás-si-ca) is a genus o plants in the mustard faimily (Brassicaceae). The members o the genus are collectively kent as cruciferous vegetables, cabbitches, or mustards. Crops frae this genus are sometimes cried cole crops, which is derived frae the Latin caulis, meanin stem or cabbitch.
Common types o brassica uised for fuid include cabbitch, cauliflouer, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, an some types o seeds. The genus is kent for containin mony important agricultural an horticultural crops. It also includes a nummer o weeds, baith wild taxa an escapees frae cultivation. It includes ower 30 wild species an hybrids, an numerous addeetional cultivars an hybrids o cultivatit origin. Maist are annuals or biennials, but some are smaa shrubs. Due tae their agricultural importance, Brassica plants hae been the subject o much scienteefic interest. Sax particularly important species (Brassica carinata, B. juncea, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. nigra an B. rapa) are derived bi combinin the chromosomes frae three earlier species, as describit bi the Triangle o U theory.
The genus is native in the wild in wastren Europe, the Mediterranean an temperate regions o Asie. In addeetion tae the cultivatit species, which are grawn warldwide, mony o the wild species graw as weeds, especially in North Americae, Sooth Americae, an Australie.
A dislike for cabbitch, broccoli et.al. can be due tae the Brassica species containin a chemical similar tae phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a chemical which is either bitter or tasteless depending on ane's genetic makeup.
Table o contents
Almaist aw pairts o some species or ither hae been developed for fuid, including the ruit (swade, neeps), stems (kohlrabi), leaves (cabbitch, collard greens), flouers (cauliflouer, broccoli), buds (Brussels sprouts, cabbitch), an seeds (mony, includin mustard seed, an ile-producin raps). Some fairms wi white or purpie foliage or flouerheids are also sometimes grawn for ornament.
Brassica vegetables are heichly regarded for their nutreetional value. Thay provide heich amoonts o vitamin C an soluble fiber an contain multiple nutrients wi potent anticancer properties: 3,3'-diindolylmethane, sulforaphane an selenium. Boilin reduces the level o anticancer compounds, but steamin, microwavin, an stir fryin dae nae result in signeeficant loss. Steaming the vegetable for three to four minutes is recommended to maximize sulforaphane.
Brassica vegetables are rich in indole-3-carbinol, a chemical which boosts DNA repair in cells an appears tae block the grawth o cancer cells. Thay are also a guid soorce o carotenoids, wi broccoli havin especially heich levels. Researchers at the Varsity o Californie at Berkeley hae recently discovered that 3,3'-diindolylmethane in Brassica vegetables is a potent modulator o the innate immune response seestem wi potent antiviral, antibacterial an anticancer activity; however, it also is an antiandrogen. These vegetables also contain goitrogens, which suppress thyroid function. This can induce hypothyroidism an goiter.
There is some disagreement amang botanists on the classification an status o Brassica species an subspecies. The followin is an abbreviatit leet, wi an emphasis on economically important species.
- B. carinata: Abyssinian mustard or Abyssinian cabbage, uised tae produce biodiesel
- B. elongata: elongatit mustard
- B. fruticulosa: Mediterranean cabbitch
- B. juncea: Indian mustard, broun an leaf mustards, Sarepta mustard
- B. napus: raps, canola, swade (swede/Swedish neep/swede neep)
- B. narinosa: broadbeaked mustard
- B. nigra: black mustard
- B. oleracea: kail, cabbitch, broccoli, cauliflouer, kai-lan, Brussel sprouts, kohlrabi
- B. perviridis: tender green, mustard spinach
- B. rapa (syn B. campestris): Cheenese cabbitch, Neep, rapini, komatsuna
- B. rupestris: broun mustard
- B. septiceps: seventop neep
- B. tournefortii: Asie mustard
Ither species formerly placed in Brassica
- B. kaber (wild mustard or charlock)—see Sinapis arvensis
- B. alba or B. hirta (white or yellae mustard)—see Sinapis alba
- B. geniculata (hoary mustard)—see Hirschfeldia incana
Genome sequencin an genetics
Bayer Cropscience (in collaboration wi BGI-Shenzhen, Cheenae, Keygene N.V., the Netherlands an the Varsity o Queensland, Australie) annoonced it haed sequenced the entire genome o rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus) an its constituent genomes present in B. rapa an B. oleracea in 2009. The B. rapa genome wis sequenced bi the Multinaitional Brassica Genome Project in 2011. This also represents the A genome component of the amphidiploid crop species B. napus and B. juncea. Comparative genomics
- Cruciferous vegetables for more edible plants o the Brassicaceae faimily.
- Gene nomenclature
- Mustard plant
- Triangle o U
- Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick (2007-05-15). "Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties.".
- "Maximizing The Anti-Cancer Power Of Broccoli". Science Daily. 2005-04-05.
- "Broccoli chemical's cancer check". BBC News. 7 February 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "How Dietary Supplement May Block Cancer Cells". Science Daily. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "Breeding Better Broccoli: Research Points To Pumped Up Lutein Levels In Broccoli". Science Daily. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces a G(1) arrest in human prostate cancer cells irrespective of androgen receptor and p53 status".
- Plant-derived 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong androgen antagonist in human prostate cancer cells.
- Bayer Sequence Genome of Canola The Bioenergy Site, Retrieved 8 November 2010
- PMID 21873998 (PubMed)
- "The www.brassica.info website for the Multinational Brassica Genome Project".