Beukkeepin (also the keepin o beuks) is the process o merkin the financial transactions o a business. This micht be sales, purchases, income an peyments makkit by a body or ony ither organisation (a company or siclike). Beukkeepin is cairit oot by a beukkeeper (keeper o the beuks an aw). Beukkeepin shoudna be mistakken for accoontin. The information gaithert by beukkeepers is uised by accoontants for makkin up statements that shew it. The're twa main standards in formal beukkeepin: Single-entry beukkeepin an Dooble-entry beukkeepin o whiten the latter is prefairt.
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Twa common beukkeepin seestems uised by businesses an ither organisations are the single-entry beukkeepin seestem an the dooble-entry beukkeepin seestem. Single-entry beukkeepin uises anely income an expense accoonts, recordit mainly in a revenue an expense jurnal. Single-entry beukkeeping is awricht for mony smaw businesses. Dooble-entry beukkeepin requires beukkeepers tae record ilka transactions twice, uisin debits an credits.
Thir is chronologically ordert record o financial transactions an are often kent collectively as beuks o oreeginal entry. The recordin o this data is the first step in the accoontin paper trail. Different types o daybeuk includes:
- Sales - uised for recordin sales invyces
- Sales credits - uised for recordin sales credit notes
- Purchases - uised for recordin purchase invyces
- Purchases credits - uised for recordin purchase credit notes
- Cashbeuk (or cash daybeuk) - uised for recordin cash peyd in an cash peyd oot (as agin the ordinar credit sales/purchases), it is aft spleet intil twa beuks (i.e. ane for debits an ane for credits)
Petty cash beuk
This is a beuk uised for recordin tottie (relative tae the size o the business) transactions. It is maist aften governed by the imprest seestem. Items that's necessar integral tae the rinnin o a business (sic as tea an coffee) are aft recordit as petty cash.
A jurnal is a formal an chronological record o financial transactions afore thair values are accoontit in general ledger as debits an credits. Journals are recordit in the jurnal daybeuk, ane o the beuks o first entry. For eilka debit jurnal there maun be a credit jurnal. There maun be at least twa jurnal entries for eilka transaction recordit.
A ledger (also cried a beuk o final entry) is a record o accoonts, ilkane o thaim recordit individual wi its balance. Unalike the jurnal (that lists chronologically types o transaction 'ithoot a balance), the ledger summarises values o ae type o financial transaction per accoont. Thir accoonts gies the basis for the balance sheet an income statement. Some ensaumples coud be:
- Customer ledger, for financial transactions wi a customer (aft kent as the sales ledger).
- Supplier ledger, for financial transactions wi a supplier (aft kent as the purchase ledger).
- Nominal ledger, that shews assets, liabilities, income an expenses.
Thir days, maist businesses o a reasonable size tends tae uise computers for tae eliminate the huge amoont o paper needit tae record thair day tae day financial acteevities. Deed some lairger retail oriented businesses (sic as supermercats) haes automatit seestems that records transaction in real-time.