Beni Depairtment

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Beni
El Beni
Depairtment
Llanos o Beni
Llanos o Beni
Banner o Beni
Flag
Coat o airms o Beni
Coat of arms
Motto: ¡Ventura, paz y unión!
("Venture, peace and union!")
Anthem: Canta victorioso pueblo de leyenda
Beni athin Bolivie
Beni athin Bolivie
Creatit 18 November 1842
Founded by José Ballivián
Caipital La Santísima Trinidad
Government
 • Body Departmental Legislative Assembly
 • Govrenor Haysen Ribera (MNR)
Area
 • Total 213,564 km2 (82,458 sq mi)
Area rank Place nº 2 (19.44%)
Elevation(average) 155 m (509 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 420,000
 • Rank Place nº 8 (4.48%)
 • Density 1.93/km2 (5.0/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Spainyie, Moxeno
Time zone Bolivie Time (UTC-4)
Area code(s) + (591) 3
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166-2:BO
Vehicle registration BO-B

Beni, sometimes El Beni, is a northeastren depairtment o Bolivie, in the lawlands region o the kintra. It is the seicont lairgest depairtment in the kintra (efter Santa Cruz), coverin 213,564 square kilometers (82,458 sq mi), an it wis creatit bi supreme decree on 18 November 1842 durin the admeenistration o General José Ballivián. Its caipital is Trinidad.

Population[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wi a population o 420,000 (2006 census), Beni is the seicont maist spairsely populatit o the nine depairtments o Bolivie, efter Pando.

Although Beni is rich in natural resources, the poverty level o its inhabitants is heich, mainly as a result o the absence o adequate roads linkin the depairtment tae the rest o kintra. The main economic activities are agricultur, timber an cattle. In addition, an unnergrund economy linkit tae illegal narcotics activities flourished in the aurie durin the last decades o the 20t century, wi mony cocaine laboratories hidin ahint the facade o remote cattle ranches.

The Beni region features mony lairge moonds connectit bi earthen causewas which wur built bi auncient inhabitants. The first European settlers consistit o Spainyie Jesuits sent tae convert the native inhabitants, chiefly in the soothren hauf o the depairtment, durin the 18t century. The releegious oreegins o mony o the Beni's touns can be attestit tae by the centrality o the local kirk in maist o the commonties, an in the vera names o the touns: Trinidad, Santa Ana, San Borja, Reyes, etc. The day, the Beni region is the seat o the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate o El Beni.

The importance o cattle ranchin is prominent in the regional cultur, an couboys, or "Vaqueros", still play an important role in Beni society, comprisin a lairge portion o the wirkin class. Ither industries significant tae the region include loggin, sma-scale fishin an huntin, fermin, an in recent years, eco-tourism.

Though the Beni lees in the soothren reaches o the Amazon Basin, an aurie renouned for tropical disease, the population experiences less health problems than in the Andes Region, especially those relatit tae malnutrition.

The inhabitants (Benianos) are maistly descendants o Cruceños (fowk frae Santa Cruz) who streamit north follaein the course o navigable rivers, an native fowks. The culture is kent as lawland Camba (common tae Santa Cruz, Beni, an Pando) an no Andean. Benianos are simple, straichtforward fowk whose Spainyie is likely inheritit frae Santa Cruz which in turn inheritit it frae Asunción, the depairtur point o its foonders, amang them Ñuflo de Chávez. It haes been remarkit that the Camba dialect, as well as the customs o the inhabitants o Bolivie's tropical lawlands, are amaist purely Andalusie.

The Beniano diet consists lairgely o rice, bananas, beef an fish. Some popular dishes include Majao, Masaco, an ithers, mony featurin cured/salted meats.

Benianos hae traditionally been mistrustful, an aften somewha contemptuous, o Andean cultur, considerin thairsels tae be lichter an mair purely Spainyie than the Quechua an Aymara-speakin populations o the heichlands. Considerable resentment existit against the central govrenment, which allegedly did vera little tae build roads or integrate the Beni intae the economy an poleetical life o the kintra. These attitudes persistit despite the fact that Beni benefitit greatly bi the Agrarian Reform institutit follaein the 1952 Revolution, wi mony citizens comin intae awnership of significant tracts o land. Maist o these turned tae cattle ranchin. The absence o a reliable road linkin the depairtment tae the main centers o pouer in the kintra (awin tae the difficult terrain) continued tae contribute tae the Benianos' sense o isolation, as did the a dounturn in the cattle industry. This, in turn, translatit in an amaist automatic support bi baith the population an depairtmental authorities for the Santa Cruz-led effort tae federalize the kintra an devolve pouers tae the depairtments at the expense o the central govrenment. Considerable social unrest teuk place in 2007 an 2008, leadin some tae consider separatism as plausible.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Beni wis a vera important center of pre-Columbie ceevilization kent as the hydraulic cultur o Las Lomas (the hills), a cultur that constructit ower 20,000 man-made airtificial hills, aw interconnectit bi thoosans o square kilometers o aqueducts, channels, embankments, airtificial lakes an lagoons, an terraces. Atween aboot 4000 BC (an probably earlier as this date is taken frae ceramics that hae been carbon datit) an the 13t Century AD this region wis settled bi important an organizit groups o human societies. Their ceevil structurs wur based, baith environmentally an economically, on the uise o specific environmental characteristics (such as the uise o aquatic plants as fertilizer, an enormous fishin seestems they constructit). You can still see miles an miles o these channels an man-made hills if you fly law ower Beni.

When the Spainyie arrivit the region haed awready been in decline for aboot three hunder years. Housomeivver, this is whaur mony products that are nou uised warldwide hae their oreegin, amang them tobacco, peanuts, cotton, cassava (manioc), vanilla an sweet potatoes. The Spainyie initially wur intensely interestit in this aurie. Durin the first century o colonization, they believit the meethical ceety o El Dorado (kent as Paititi an aw) coud be foond in this region. Housomeivver, they niver foond this legendary ceety o gowd an they suin lost interest in the aurie, which wad remain marginalizit for several centuries efter.

Atween the 19t an 20t centuries northren Beni became Bolivie's rubber caipital. The abundance o rubber trees attractit mony fowk tae the region, mony o them adventurers an ithers wirkers (mony o whom wur indigenous) tae wirk in the huge rubber plantations that arose. For decades it wis ane o the maist active, dynamic regions o Bolivie. Cachuela Esperanza wis an important center for rubber exports as it is locatit alang the shores o the Beni River. It haed ane o the best equipped hospitals in Bolivie at the end o the 19t Century. But these enormous rubber plantations aw but disappeared bi the end o the Seicont Warld War an the day mony o them are cattle ranches. There are anerlie some sma rubber producers who still uise the river tae transport their production.

Govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

The chief executive office o Bolivie depairtments (syne Mey 2010) is the govrenor; till then, the office wis cried the prefect, an till 2006 the prefect wis appointit bi the Preses o Bolivie. Beni currently haes an interim govrenor, Haysen Ribera Leigue, who wis selectit bi the Depairtmental Legislative Assembly on 16 December 2011.[1] Govrenor Ernesto Suárez Sattori, who wis electit on 4 Aprile 2010, wis suspendit follaein his indictment for irregular expenditurs relatit tae a pouer plant in San Borja, Beni, in compliance wi a Bolivie legal mandate that indictit offeecials mey no continue tae serve.[1]

Date Began Date Endit Prefect/Govrenor Pairty Notes
23 Jan 2006 30 Aug 2007 Ernesto Suárez Sattori PODEMOS First electit prefect. Electit in Bolivie general election, December 2005
4 Jan 2010 30 Mey 2010 Clemente Clemente Sanjinés Interim; feenal prefect
30 Mey 2010 16 November 2011 Ernesto Suárez Sattori Beni First Electit in regional election on 4 Aprile; first govrenor. Suspendit unner indictment.
16 November 2011 Haysen Ribera Leigue MNR* Chosen as interim govrenor bi the Depairtmental Legislative Assembly, supportit bi the MNR an MAS-IPSP.[1]
Sources: worldstatesmen.org. *MNR members o the Depairtmental Legislative Assembly, includin Ribera hae been derecognizit bi the pairty syne joinin the MAS majority in 2010.

Legislative Assembly[eedit | eedit soorce]

Unner the 2009 Constitution, each Bolivie depairtment haes an electit Depairtmental Legislative Assembly. The first elections wur held 4 Aprile 2010. The leadin pairty in the twinty-aicht member assembly is Beni First, wi 11 seats. The Muivement towards Socialism (MAS-IPSP) haulds 10 seats, an the Revolutionary Naitionalist Muivement (MNR) haulds 3 seats. Twa seats each wur selectit bi indigenous fowk an bi peasants through usos y costumbres. In alliance wi the indigenous an peasant representatives, the MAS-IPSP controls the presidency o the Assembly.[2] The three MNR representatives an their alternates wur derecognizit bi the naitional pairty in 2010 when they backit MAS-IPSP policies an leadership.[3]

The December 2011 suspension o Govrenor Ernesto Suarez wis backit bi 15 votes, includin the MAS an MNR delegations, an twa indigenous or campesino representatives. Twa members o the assembly wur indictit simultaneously anaw an replacit bi their alternates: Sonia Suárez Araúz (MNR) wis replacit bi Juan Carlos Herrera; an Carlos Navia Ribera (MAS-IPSP) wis replacit bi Tatiana Paniagua Zabala.[4] The interim governor was also a member of the Assembly.

Naitional Congress[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the National Congress o Bolivie Beni elects nine oot o 130 members of the Cámara de Diputados (Chamber o Deputies), an fower members of the Cámara de Senadores (Chamber o Senators).

Senators
  • Freddy Bersatti Tudela (MAS-IPSP)
  • Zonia Guardia Melgar (MAS-IPSP)
  • Carlos Alberto Sonnenschein Antelo (PPB)
  • Jeanine Áñez Chávez (PPB)

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Beni`s weather is tropical an humid, wi a prevalence o wairm tae hot temperaturs.

Beni borders upon Brazil tae the northeast, an the depairtments o Santa Cruz tae the sootheast, La Paz tae the wast, Pando tae the northwest, an Cochabamba tae the sooth. Beni's territory is mainly covered bi rainforest (pairticularly the northren an eastren portions o the depairtment) an pampa (notably the grassland Moxos Plain tae the sooth, closer tae the Andean reaches). Hintle o Beni is at aboot 155 meters abuin sea level. Although maist o the depairtment is flat, alang the border wi La Paz there are twa sierra chains cried Eva Eva an Pelado. Beni is criss-crossed bi numerous Rivers, aw o which are Amazon tributaries. The lairgest o these are the Iténez (kent as Guaporé an aw), Mamoré, Madre de Dios, Madera, Yata, Ivón, Machupo, Itonama, Baures, San Martín, San Miguel, San Simón, Negro, Sécure, Yacuma, Maniquí, Ibare an Apere, aw o which are navigable. Beni haes numerous lakes an lagoons an aw. The maist important o these are: Laguna Suárez, Rogagua, Rogaguado, San Luis, San Pablo, Huachi, Huatunas, Yusala, Huachuna, Agua Clara, Ginebra, La Dichosa, Bolivie, Navidad, Las Abras, Larga, Maracaibo an Aquiles Lake.

Flora an fauna[eedit | eedit soorce]

Capybara faimily in the region o Rurrenabaque, Beni Dept.

In the region's mony rivers an ower 400 species o fish hae been foond. Trinidad haes an entire museum, the Museo Ictícola, dedicatit tae Beni's fish fauna which is the third lairgest o its type in Sooth Americae. The maist commonly fished an consumit species are pacú, tambaquí, surubí, palometa (a type o piranha), sábalo, bagre (catfish), an blanquillo. Alligators are huntit for their leather an meat an aw, which is considered a delicacy an is a common pairt o meals in Beni. Beni nou exports huge amoonts o lumber an aw, although ower the past 20 years the govrenment o Bolivie haes wirkit wi numerous internaitional entities an NGOs tae certify its lumber concessions an aw lumber exportit must be accompaneed bi certificates o oreegin.

Agricultur an livestock[eedit | eedit soorce]

Acause o its climate an rich soils, the depairtment is Bolivie's seicont lairgest agricultural center efter Santa Cruz. There are extensive fields o corn, yucca (manioc), sunflouers, rice, an mony tropical fruits such as cacao (frae which chocolate is made), Brazil nuts (ane o the regions main crops an exports), soybeans, bananas, maracuya, guayaba, papaya, an mony ither citrus fruits. Coffee is also grown extensively. Beni is the seicont Bolivie's lairgest cattle-ranchin region an aw. Offeecial estimates calculate there are onywhaur atween 2 an 2.5 million heids o cattle throughoot the year. Maist o these are turned oot tae pastur an thus are naturally fed.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Beni is hot an humid durin maist o the year wi an annual rainfaw average atween 1,000–4,000 mm (39–157 in). It is ane o the wettest regions in Bolivie, wi mair wetlands than the better-kent Pantanal. Durin the winter (Juin an Julie) the weather can be ceul an winds blowin northwaird frae the Sooth Pole an Argentinae's Patagonie region can cause temperaturs ysr drop quite drastically vera quickly.

Provinces o Beni[eedit | eedit soorce]

The depairtment is dividit intae 8 provinces which are further subdividit into municipalities an 48 cantons.

Province Inhabitants Aurie (km²) Caipital Map
Cercado 93,276 12,276 San Javier Bolivia department of beni.png
Vaca Díez 134,657 22,434 Riberalta
José Ballivián 80,650 40,444 Santos Reyes
Yacuma 29,397 34,686 Santa Ana del Yacuma
Moxos 23,823 33,316 San Ignacio de Moxos
Marban 15,766 15,126 Loreto
Mamoré 13,638 18,706 San Joaquín
Iténez 20,192 36,576 Magdalena

Languages[eedit | eedit soorce]

The predominant leid in the depairtment is Spainyie. The follaein table shows the number o those belangin tae the recognizit group o speakers.[5]

Leid Depairtment Bolivie
Quechua 8,643 2,281,198
Aymara 7,910 1,525,321
Guaraní 396 62,575
Anither native 16,695 49,432
Spainyie 331,547 6,821,626
Foreign 6,512 250,754
Anerlie native 7,854 960,491
Native an Spainyie 24,171 2,739,407
Spainyie an foreign 307,680 4,115,751

Places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Suspendido... Suárez cae en el Beni MNR asume interinato". El Día (Santa Cruz, Bolivia). 2011-12-17. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  2. "Beni está dividido". La Prensa (La Paz). 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  3. "Critican alianza del MAS y MNR contra Suárez". El Deber. 2011-12-18. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  4. "Suspenden a Ernesto Suárez y uno del MNR es gobernador del Beni". Oxígeno. 2011-12-18. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  5. obd.descentralizacion.gov.bo (Spanish)
  • Gonzalez Moscoso, Rene. 1984. Enciclopedia Boliviana: Diccionario Geográfico Boliviano. Editorial “Los Amigos del Libro”, La Paz. 278pp.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]


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