Benedict Arnold V (Januar 14, 1741-Juin 14, 1801) wis a general durin the American Revolutionary War. He began the war in the Continental Airmy but later defected tae the British Airmy. While he wis still a general on the American side, he obtained command o the fort at Wast Point, New York, an plotted unsuccessfully tae surrender it tae the Breetish. Efter the plot wis exposed in September 1780, he entered the Breetish Airmy as a brigadier general.
Born in Connecticut, he wis a merchant operating ships on the Atlantic Ocean when the war broke oot in 1775. After joinin the growin airmy ootside Boston, he distinguished himself through acts o cunnin an bravery. His actions includit the Capture o Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, successful defensive an delayin tactics despite losin the Battle o Valcour Island on Lake Champlain in 1776, the Battle o Ridgefield, Connecticut (efter which he wis promotit tae major general), operations in relief o the Siege o Fort Stanwix, an key actions durin the pivotal Battles of Saratoga in 1777, in which he suffered leg injuries that endit his combat career for several years.
In spite o his successes, Arnold wis passed ower for promotion bi the Continental Congress while ither officers claimed credit for some o his accomplishments. Adversaries in military an poleetical circles brought charges o corruption or ither malfeasance, but he wis acquittit in maist formal inquiries. Congress investigatit his accoonts, an foond that he awed it money efter he haed spent much o his awn money on the war effort. Frustratit an bitter, Arnold decidit tae change sides in 1779, an opened secret negotiations wi the Breetish. In Julie 1780, he sought an obtained command o Wast Point in order tae surrender it tae the Breetish. Arnold's scheme wis exposed when American forces captured Breetish Major John André carryin papers that revealed the plot. Upon learnin o André's capture, Arnold fled doun the Hudson River tae the Breetish sloop-o-war Vulture, narrowly avoidin capture bi the forces o George Washington, who haed been alertit tae the plot.
Arnold received a commission as a brigadier general in the Breetish Airmy, an annual pension o £360, an a lump sum o over £6,000. He led Breetish forces on raids in Virginia, an against New London an Groton, Connecticut, before the war effectively endit wi the American victory at Yorktown. In the winter o 1782, Arnold moved tae Lunnon wi his seicont wife, Margaret "Peggy" Shippen Arnold. He wis well received bi King George III an the Tories but frouned upon bi the Whigs. In 1787, he entered intae mercantile business wi his sons Richard an Henry in Saunt John, New Brunswick, but returned tae London tae settle permanently in 1791, where he dee'd ten years later.
Because o the way he changed sides his name quickly became a byword in the Unitit States for treason or betrayal. His conflictin legacy is recalled in the ambiguous nature o some o the memorials that hae been placed in his honor.
References[edit | edit source]
[edit | edit source]
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Arnold, Benedict". Encyclopædia Britannica (11t ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- John Fiske (1900). "Arnold, Benedict (soldier)". In Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John. Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- Beach, Chandler B., ed. (1914). "article name needed". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co.
- Some details from ushistory.org
- Biographical sketch by a contemporary, reflecting American sentiment towards Arnold
- Benedict Arnold's Portraits
- usahistory site includes details on Arnold's escape
- Resort located on Arnold's trail to Quebec City
- The original proclamation accusing Benedict Arnold of High Treason from the Pennsylvania Archives
- Virtual Tour of burial site - Stained glass
- 1894 NY Times article
- Benedict Arnold Letters
- Arnold's Treason from Thrilling Incidents in American History
- "Benedict Arnold". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
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