Barnaul

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This airticle is aboot the ceety in Roushie. For the Barnaul meteorite o 1904, see meteorite faw.
Barnaul (Scots)
Барнаул (Roushie)
-  Ceety[citation needit]  -
Barnaul Skyline 2007.jpg
View o Barnaul
Map of Russia - Altai Krai (2008-03).svg
Location o Altai Krai in Roushie
Barnaul is located in Altai Krai
Barnaul
Barnaul
Location o Barnaul in Altai Krai
Coordinates: 53°17′27″N 83°38′52″E / 53.29083°N 83.64778°E / 53.29083; 83.64778
Coat of Arms of Barnaul (Altai krai) (1846).png
Flag of Barnaul (Altai krai).png
Coat o airms
Banner
Ceety Day Ane o Sundays in August or September[citation needit]
Admeenistrative status (as o October 2011)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Altai Krai
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae ceety o krai significance o Barnaul[1]
Admeenistrative center o Altai Krai,[citation needit] ceety o krai significance o Barnaul[1]
Municipal status (as o July 2009)
Urban okrug Barnaul Urban Okrug[2]
Admeenistrative centre o Barnaul Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needit] Igor Savintsev (acting)[citation needit]
Representative body Ceety Duma[citation needit]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
612,401 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 21st
Time zone OMST (UTC+07:00)[4]
Founded 1730s[5]
Ceety status since 1771[citation needit]
Postal code(s) 656xxx[6]
Dialin code(s) +7 3852[7]
Offeecial wabsteid

Barnaul (Roushie: Барнаул; IPA: [bərnɐˈul]) is a ceety an the admeenistrative centre o Altai Krai, Roushie, locatit on the Ob River. Population: 612,401 (2010 Census preliminary results);[3] 600,749 (2002 Census);[8] 601,811 (1989 Census).[9]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety lees alang the Ob River in the Wast Siberie Plain. It is the closest major ceety tae the Altai Muntains tae the sooth. Barnaul is situatit relatively close tae the border wi the kintras o Kazakhstan, Mongolie, an Cheenae.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

A historical firthen hoose

Roushie Empire[eedit | eedit soorce]

Barnaul wis ane o the earliest ceeties established in Siberie. Oreeginally chosen for its proximity tae the mineral-rich Altai Muntains an its location on a major river, the steid was foondit bi the walthy Demidov faimily in the 1730s.[5] In addeetion tae the copper which haed oreeginally attractit the Demidovs, substantial deposits o siller wur suin foond as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories wur taken ower bi the Croun, an suin became the major siller centre o Roushie.

Bi the 18t an early 19t centuries, 90% o Roushie siller wis producit in the Altai region. Barnaul wis the steid o the kintra's lairgest siller-smeltin factory, an as production expandit, so did the population. In 1771, the ance-smaw dounset wis grantit toun status, ane o the lairgest in Siberie.

Bi the 1900s, Barnaul haed grown intae a major centre o trade an cultur o the region, especially efter the construction o the Turkestan-Siberie Railwey.

In 1914, Barnaul wis the steid o a draft riot, Roushie's lairgest durin Warld War I, which resulted in ower a hunder casualties. [10]

Warld War II[eedit | eedit soorce]

Awtho the ceety wis thoosans o miles awa frae the actual fechtin, hunders o thoosans o citizens frae Altai Krai focht an dee'd at the front in the course o the Seicont Warld War, a fact commemoratit bi a lairge memorial in central Barnaul.

The same period saw Barnaul's economic importance increase dramatically as a result o the relocation o major Soviet industrial facilities frae the wast o the kintra tae the safety o distant Siberie. As a result, Barnaul continues tae host ane o the lairgest ammunition factories in Roushie.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Barnaul is the admeenistrative center o the krai. Athin the framewirk o admeenistrative diveesions, it is, thegither wi ane wirk dounset an twinty-fower landwart localities, incorporatit as the ceety o krai significance o Barnaul—a admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[1] As a municipal diveesion, the ceety o krai significance o Barnaul is incorporatit as Barnaul Urban Okrug.[2]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The continental climate o Barnaul (Köppen Dfb) is defined bi its geografical position at the soothren end o the Siberie steppe: it is subject tae lang, frigid winters, wi a average o −15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in Januar, but enjoys a short wairm saison in the simmer wi a average temperatur o +19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in Julie. Temperaturs can vary in the extreme, frae belaw −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter tae abuin +35 °C (95 °F) in the simmer.

The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the aurie is 433 millimeters (17.0 in) per year, 75% o which occurs durin the region's wairmer saison.

Climate data for Barnaul
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.4
(45.3)
16.4
(61.5)
32.3
(90.1)
37.4
(99.3)
36.6
(97.9)
37.9
(100.2)
38.3
(100.9)
34.0
(93.2)
27.4
(81.3)
15.3
(59.5)
6.3
(43.3)
16.4
(61.5)
Average heich °C (°F) −10.8
(12.6)
−8.1
(17.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
10.1
(50.2)
20.1
(68.2)
24.3
(75.7)
26.3
(79.3)
24.3
(75.7)
17.7
(63.9)
9.2
(48.6)
−2.2
(28.0)
−8.5
(16.7)
8.48
(47.27)
Daily mean °C (°F) −15.5
(4.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−6.5
(20.3)
3.8
(38.8)
12.8
(55.0)
17.7
(63.9)
19.9
(67.8)
17.4
(63.3)
11.0
(51.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−6.3
(20.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
2.63
(36.73)
Average laich °C (°F) −20.1
(−4.2)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−11.8
(10.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
6.5
(43.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.0
(57.2)
11.6
(52.9)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
−10
(14.0)
−17.4
(0.7)
−2.52
(27.46)
Record laich °C (°F) −48.2
(−54.8)
−42.9
(−45.2)
−35.5
(−31.9)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.9
(37.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−7.8
(18.0)
−27
(−16.6)
−38.9
(−38.0)
−43.1
(−45.6)
−48.2
(−54.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
17
(0.67)
28
(1.1)
40
(1.57)
55
(2.17)
68
(2.68)
44
(1.73)
43
(1.69)
37
(1.46)
37
(1.46)
31
(1.22)
442
(17.4)
humidity 78 76 74 63 55 64 70 70 69 73 79 79 70.8
Avg. rainy days 0.4 1 3 12 16 16 17 16 16 14 6 1 118.4
Avg. snawy days 22 18 13 4 0.4 0 0 0 0.2 4 14 24 99.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77 112 178 218 272 315 320 265 199 109 75 64 2,204
Source no. 1: pogoda.ru.net[11]
Source no. 2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[12]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Newly constructit biggins in Barnaul

Barnaul is an important industrial centre o Wastren Siberie. Thare are mair than 100 industrial enterprises in the ceety, employin approximately 120 thoosan fowk. Leadin industries in the ceety wirk wi diesel an carbon processin; as well as production o hivy machinery, tires, furnitur an fuitwear. It is hame tae a newly established diamond facetin industry, which the ceety howps will expand an become a major source o revenue in the futur. Barnaul is currently ane o the anerly locations in Roushie which haes a industry specializin in diamond-facetin.

The main business street o the ceety is Leninsky Prospect, which runs soothwast frae the Ob River throu the centre o the ceety. In recent years, a nummer o new heich-end shoppin centres hae appeared tae meet demand for products desired bi the ceety's nouveau riche. Anither industry quickly chyngin the face o Barnaul's dountoun aurie is the restaurant industry: while choices haed been extremely limitit till recently, a growin nummer o establishments caterin tae fowk o differin income levels are becomin mair common, coincidin wi the upturn in the region's economy.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Barnaul haes air, railwey, road an riverboat links tae ither pairts o Roushie. The ceety lees approximately 220 kilometers (140 mi) sooth o Novosibirsk, the lairgest ceety in Siberie an the third-lairgest in Roushie. It is at a junction o the NovosibirskAlmaty an Biysk train lines. Thare are frequent buses tae nearbi ceeties Biysk an Gorno-Altaysk an aw. It taks aboot fower oors tae reach the Altai Muntains in the sooth bi caur alang the Chuysky heich-gate.

Barnaul airport locatit aboot fifteen minutes frae the centre o the ceety, which affers daily flichts tae an frae Moscow an Saunt Petersburg amang ither mair local flichts. Barnaul is approximately fower oors bi plane frae Moscow, an slichtly langer tae Saunt Petersburg. It taks approximately fower oors bi plane tae reach Vladivostok on the Paceefic coast o Roushie an aw.

Ony pairt o the ceety can be reached uisin public transport, whether bi bus, trolley, tram or taxi.

Awtho Barnaul's main roads hae unnergane recent renovation, maist ither roads are in serious disrepair.

Eddication an cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Barnaul is a important regional centre o scientific development. Five varsities, includin Altai State Technical Varsity, Barnaul State Pedagogical Varsity, Altai State Medical Varrsity, Altai State Agrarian Varsity an Altai State Varsity, as well as 35 librars are locatit in the ceety. Barnaul haes five theatres an three museums an aw. The ceety's Museum o Local Lear wis foondit in 1823 an is ane o the auldest in Siberie, displayin local airtists' wirk as well as unique airtifacts frae the Altai region.

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne 1957 FC Dynamo Barnaul haes been the ceety's profeesional fitbaa club. The club haes recently advancit frae the Roushie Seicont Diveesion tae the Roushie First Diveesion afore bein relegatit again tae Roushie Seicont Diveesion in 2009.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Barnaul is twinned wi:

Notable fowk[eedit | eedit soorce]

Images o Barnaul[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Law #28-ZS
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Law #144-ZS
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 37. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. Почтовые индексы Алтайский край, Город Барнаул. Ruspostindex.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  7. How to call Russia: country code, area codes, phone books. Howtocallabroad.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  8. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. Sanborn, Josh. "The Mobilization of 1917 and the Question of the Russian Nation." Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2: pp. 267-89.
  11. "Weather And Climate - Climate Barnaul" (in Russian). Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  12. "Climate Normals for Barnaul". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №100-ЗС от 25 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Алтайского края "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #100-ZS of December 25, 2012 On Amending the Law of Altai Krai "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai". Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
  • Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. Закон №144-ЗС от 27 декабря 2008 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №44-ЗС от 2 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Приложение 1 к Закону Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №5–6, 15 января 2009 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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