Balashikha

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Balashikha (Scots)
Балашиха (Roushie)
-  City[1]  -
Map of Russia - Moscow Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location o Moscow Oblast in Roushie
Balashikha is located in Moscow Oblast
Balashikha
Balashikha
Location o Balashikha in Moscow Oblast
Coordinates: 55°49′N 37°58′E / 55.817°N 37.967°E / 55.817; 37.967
Coat of Arms of Balashikha (Moscow oblast) (1999).png
Flag of Balashikha (Moscow oblast).png
Coat o airms
Banner
Admeenistrative status (as o July 2010)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Moscow Oblast[1]
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Admeenistrative center o Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Municipal status (as o October 2011)
Urban okrug Balashikha Urban Okrug[2]
Admeenistrative centre o Balashikha Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needit] Vladimir Samodelov[citation needit]
Representative body Cooncil o Deputies[citation needit]
Statistics
Aurie (urban okrug) (July 2012) 218.61 km2 (84.41 sq mi)[2]
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
215,494 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 86th
Densitie 986 /km2 (2,550 /sq mi)[4]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[5]
Founded 1830[6]
City status since 1939[citation needit]
Postal code(s) 143xxx[citation needit]
Dialin code(s) +7 495[citation needit]
Offeecial wabsteid

Balashikha (Roushie: Балашиха; IPA: [bəlɐˈʂɨxə]) is a ceety in Moscow Oblast, Roushie, locatit on the Pekhorka River 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) east o Moscow. Population: 215,494 (2010 Census preliminary results);[3] 147,909 (2002 Census);[7] 135,841 (1989 Census);[8] 92,400 (1970).

Etymologie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Balashikha is an unuisual name in Roushie an several legends exist as tae why it wis chosen as the name o this conurbation. The wird balash is Turkic and can be translatit as an inn, i.e., a place o temporar respite for travelers. Anither accoont tells o a walthy Tatar, namit Balash, a stryndant o Genghis Khan o the Gowden Horde who haed his residence on this steid. Maist uisual explanation is that it derivit frae the wird balakh, which means caltha palustris plant. Anither version: in [[Finno-Ugric leids Bala-shika means laund o celebrations, laund o laughter an fun.[9] Before Slavs in this area lived Finno-Ugric peoples.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Balashikha wis establisht in 1830.[6] It grantit toun status in 1939.[10] Several landwart hamlets haed existit lang afore on the steid o the modren ceety.

The ceety staunds on the famous Vladimir Heich-gate, which led oot o Moscow tae the east. This wis the route alang which convictit creeminals wur mairched tae forcit labor camps in Siberie. The road wis renamit Gorky Heich-gate in the Soviet era. The failur o the Dizembrist Revolt against Tsar Nicholas I led tae the execution o its ringleaders an the exile o mony nobles tae Siberie. Soviet-era schuilchilder wur tauld that the preesoners wur mairched in chains alang this road follaeed bi their wives. In truth, the Dizembrist preesoners wur sent frae St. Petersburg, then the caipital o Roushie, throu Yaroslavl, an no throu Moscow an Balashikha, an the story wis inventit as pairt o celebrations o the 100t anniversary o the event in 1925.

Atween 1830 an 1870, a cotton factory wis in operation in the aurie, wi its fabric cried Balashikha. A railwey station wis built at the end o the 19t century, again cried Balashikha Station.

As it grew, Balashikha absorbit ither veelages, includin Gorenki, a suburban estate o Coont Andrey Razumovsky, an Pekhra-Yakovlevskoye, an estate o Prince Galitzine, the latter bein in uise for 250 years frae 1591 tae 1828. This is the steid o a stane kirk, built frae 1777 tae 1782.

Saltykovka, a pairt o Balashikha, haes lang been kent for its attractions tae the airtistic commonty. Isaak Levitan, the famous landscape painter, livit thare in 1879. Lev Tolstoy wis anither frequent visitor.

Soviet period[eedit | eedit soorce]

Several institutions wur foondit in Balashikha efter the October Revolution, includin ane dedicatit tae the production of fur.

Durin the Soviet era, Balashikha became a major industrial centre wi industries in metallurgie, aviation industrie, cryogenic technologie, machinery, an ither fields.

Balashikha sent mony o its sons tae the front tae fecht the Germans durin Warld War II. Amang those who focht an dee'd wis Ivan Fleorov who commandit a Katyusha rocket diveesion an is remembered bi several monuments an museums in the aurie.

Alang wi mony ither Roushie Orthodox Kirks, the Cathedral o Saunt Alexander Nevsky was demolisht by the government. The Cathedral was blown up in the 1960s but wis rebuilt, on its oreeginal steid, in 2002 efter the collapse o communism.

Balashikha is the steid o a lairge Roushie Airmy base an wis closed tae foreigners durin the Soviet era. It wis the heidquairters o the 1st Corps o the Soviet Air Defence Forces an is nou tae become the heidquairters of the Operational-Strategic Command for Missile-Space Defense.

It is hame tae several music schuils an aw, includin the Sviridov Schuil o Airts.

Modrenity[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lenina Avenue in Balashikha
Balashikha radio touer - 300-metres mast left an 176-metres touer on the richt

The Balashikha Maternity Hoose wis designatit on 1 Julie 2003, tae be the Moscow Oblast Perinatal Center. This facility will nou function as a regional perinatal care facility for heich-risk mithers an infants an a perinatal halth education centre for Moscow Oblast.

Awtho no pairt o the extensive Moscow subwey seestem, Balashikha is hame tae mony office wirkers who commute tae Moscow each day. It haes several thrivin mercats an retail centers an is quickly modrenizin. It is surroondit bi attractive firthland an kintraside.

Source: "Balashikha in stories" (Балашиха в очерках и зарисовках) - А. Галанин и др.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is kent for its unique river an watterwey seestem. The Pekhorka River seestem covers an aurie o 40 kilometers (25 mi) frae north tae sooth an 20 kilometers (12 mi) frae east tae wast, an mony sma lakes an ponds wur creatit bi dammin tae provide water power for the cotton mills in the 19th century.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Athin the framewirk o admeenistrative diveesions, it is, thegither wi twal landwart localities, incorporatit as Balashikha Ceety Unner Oblast Jurisdiction—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[1] As a municipal diveesion, Balashikha Ceety Unner Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporatit as Balashikha Urban Okrug.[2]

In the past, Balashikha served as the admeenistrative centre o Balashikhinsky District. On 1 Januar 2011, the destrict wis abolisht.

Attractions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Balashikha is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Law #12/2001-OZ
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Law #99/2006-OZ
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  5. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. 6.0 6.1 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 35. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  7. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. Топонимия Балашихи.
  10. | Balashikha. Official page. History.

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования (13 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2013-OZ of January 31, 2013 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast. Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication (January 13, 2013).).
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №99/2006-ОЗ от 7 июля 2006 г. «О городском округе Балашиха и его границе», в ред. Закона №101/2012-ОЗ от 6 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О городском округе Балашиха и его границе"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №123, 11 июля 2006 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #99/2006-OZ of July 7, 2006 On Balashikha Urban Okrug and Its Border, as amended by the Law #101/2012-OZ of July 6, 2012 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On Balashikha Urban Okrug and Its Border". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication.).

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]