Atyrau

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Atyrau
Атырау

Seal
Atyrau is located in Kazakhstan
Atyrau
Atyrau
Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates: 47°07′N 51°53′E / 47.117°N 51.883°E / 47.117; 51.883
Kintra Kazakhstan
Province Atyrau Province
Foondit 1640
Ceety status 1885
Government
 • Akim (mayor) Askar Kerimov
Elevation -20 m (−70 ft)
Population (2012)
 • City 163,221
 • Metro 521,585
Time zone UTC+5 (UTC+5)
Postal code 060001 - 060011
Area code(s) (+7) 7122
Vehicle registration E, 06
Website http://www.atyrau-city.kz

Atyrau (Kazakh: Атырау, pronounced [ɑtərɑ́w]; Roushie: Атырау[ɐtᵻˈrau]), kent as Guryev (Roushie: Гурьев[ˈɡurʲjɪf]) till 1991, is a transcontinental ceety in Kazakhstan, an the caipital o Atyrau Province. It is locatit at the mooth o the Ural River, 2700 kilometers wast o Almaty an 350 kilometers east o the Roushie ceety o Astrakhan. Ither transliterations include Aterau, Atirau, Atyraw, Atyraou, Atırav, Atıraw.

Modren Atyrau is famous for its ile an fish industries. It haes 154,100 indwallers (2007), up frae 142,500 (1999 census), 90% ethnic Kazakhs (up frae 80%), the rest bein maistly Russians an ither ethnic groups such as Tatars an Ukrainians. Syne October 2006, its mayor is Salimzhan Naqpayev.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The wooden fort at the mooth o the Yaik River wis foondit in 1645 as Nizhny Yaitzky gorodok (leeterally, Lawer Yaik Fort) bi the Roushie trader Gury Nazarov, a native o Yaroslavl, who specialized in trade wi Khiva an Bukhara. The fort wis plundered bi the Yaik Cossacks, leadin the Guriev faimily tae rebuild it in stane (1647–62). Tsar Alexis sent a garrison o Streltsy tae protect the fort frae Cossack incursions. Despite these efforts, the Cossack rebel Stepan Razin held the toun in 1667 an 1668. The fort gradually lost its strategic significance an wis demolished in 1810. Atween 1708 an 1992 the ceety wis kent as Guriev.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Atyrau (thegither wi Aktau) is Kazakhstan's main harbour ceety on the Caspian Sea at the delta o the Ural River. Atyrau ceety is approximately 20 meters alaw sea level. The ceety is considered tae be locatit baith in Asie an Europe, as it is dividit bi the Ural River.

The ceety is a hub for the ile-rich Caspian Depression; acause o this, mony ile wells hae been drilled in the Tengiz Field an Kashagan Field auries. An ile pipeline runs frae Atyrau tae Samara, whaur it jyns the Roushie pipeline seestem. A separate ile pipeline runs frae the Tengiz field tae the Roushie Black Sea port o Novorossiisk.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Atyrau's climate is semi-arid (Köppen climate classification BSk), just shy o bein classified as arid (Köppen climate classification BWk), wi het simmers an cauld winters. Precipitation is law throughoot the year. Snaw is common, though licht, in winter. The lawest temperatur on record is −37.9 °C (−36.2 °F), recordit in 1909, an the heichest temperature is 42.7 °C (108.9 °F), recordit in 1984.[1]

Climate data for Atyrau
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
15.0
(59.0)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
37.6
(99.7)
41.9
(107.4)
42.7
(108.9)
41.6
(106.9)
40.1
(104.2)
29.6
(85.3)
19.9
(67.8)
11.8
(53.2)
42.7
(108.9)
Average heich °C (°F) −2.8
(27.0)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.8
(42.4)
17.2
(63.0)
24.5
(76.1)
30.8
(87.4)
33.4
(92.1)
31.6
(88.9)
24.6
(76.3)
15.3
(59.5)
5.1
(41.2)
−1.1
(30.0)
15.2
(59.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−6.3
(20.7)
0.8
(33.4)
11.2
(52.2)
18.4
(65.1)
24.5
(76.1)
26.8
(80.2)
24.8
(76.6)
18.0
(64.4)
9.7
(49.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.3
(24.3)
9.9
(49.8)
Average laich °C (°F) −9.4
(15.1)
−9.9
(14.2)
−3.1
(26.4)
6.1
(43.0)
12.8
(55.0)
18.4
(65.1)
20.5
(68.9)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
5.0
(41.0)
−1.7
(28.9)
−7
(19.4)
5.2
(41.4)
Record laich °C (°F) −37.9
(−36.2)
−37.4
(−35.3)
−32.3
(−26.1)
−12.3
(9.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.3
(36.1)
8.1
(46.6)
4.8
(40.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
−15.7
(3.7)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−35.8
(−32.4)
−37.9
(−36.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 14
(0.55)
11
(0.43)
15
(0.59)
16
(0.63)
23
(0.91)
18
(0.71)
10
(0.39)
12
(0.47)
8
(0.31)
16
(0.63)
18
(0.71)
14
(0.55)
175
(6.89)
humidity 84 80 74 58 50 50 45 46 52 64 80 84 63
Avg. rainy days 5 4 6 8 9 7 6 5 5 8 10 6 79
Avg. snawy days 14 11 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 11 50
Mean monthly sunshine hours 99.2 138.4 167.4 246.0 310.0 330.0 344.1 322.4 267.0 195.3 105.0 74.4 2,599.2
Source no. 1: Weatherbase[2]
Source no. 2: Hong Kong Observatory[3]

Industry[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ile industry[eedit | eedit soorce]

The third biggest refinery in Kazakhstan is locatit in Atyrau. Atyrau Refinery is operatit bi KazMunayGas an haes a capacity o 16,600 m³/day (2012). A deep ile refinin complex is unner construction which is the final stage o complete reconstruction o Atyrau Ile Refinery. This project is designed tae process 2.4 million tons/year o raw materials (ile, vacuum gas ile). The project will increase the depth o the ile processin at the refinery bi 2016 tae 85%. The volume o ile refinin will reach 5.5 million tons per year.[4]

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Atyrau is twinned wi:

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "pogoda.ru.net Погода и Климат". Retrieved January 10, 2012. 
  2. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Atyrai, Kazakhstan". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  3. "Climatological Information for Guriev, Kazakhstan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  4. "Japanese Banks Provide $297.5 million Loan to Atyrau Oil Refinery". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 15 August 2012. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]