Asteraceae

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Asteraceae
A poster wi twelve different species o Asteraceae frae the Asteroideae, Cichorioideae an Carduoideae subfaimilies
Scienteefic classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Bercht. & J.Presl[1]
Type genus
Aster
L.
Subfaimilies

Asteroideae Lindley
Barnadesioideae Bremer & Jansen
Carduoideae Sweet
Cichorioideae Chevallier
Corymbioideae Panero & Funk
Gochnatioideae Panero & Funk
Gymnarrhenoideae Panero & Funk
Hecastocleidoideae Panero & Funk
Mutisioideae Lindley
Pertyoideae Panero & Funk
Stifftioideae Panero
Wunderlichioideae Panero & Funk

Diversity
1,600 genera
Synonyms

Compositae Giseke
Acarnaceae Link
Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Aposeridaceae Raf.
Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Artemisiaceae Martinov
Athanasiaceae Martinov
Calendulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Carduaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Cassiniaceae Sch. Bip.
Cichoriaceae Juss.
Coreopsidaceae Link
Cynaraceae Spenn.
Echinopaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Helichrysaceae Link
Inulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Lactucaceae Drude
Mutisiaceae Burnett
Partheniaceae Link
Perdiciaceae Link
Senecionaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Vernoniaceae Burmeist.

Soorce: GRIN[2]

Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred tae as the aster, daisy, or sunflouer faimily), are an exceedingly lairge an widespread faimily o Angiospermae.[3][4] The group haes mair than 23,000 currently acceptit species, spread athort 1,620 genera (leet) an 12 subfaimilies. In terms o nummers o species, Asteraceae is rivaled anly bi Orchidaceae.[3][5] (Which o the twa faimilies is actually lairger is unclear, owin tae uncertainty aboot exactly hou mony species exist in each faimily). The main featur o the faimily is the composite flouer type in the fairm o capitula surroondit bi involucral bracts.The name "Asteraceae" comes frae Aster, the maist prominent genus in the faimily, that derives frae the Greek ἀστήρ meanin starn, an is connectit wi its inflorescence starn fairm. As for the term "Compositae", mair ancient but still valid, it obviously maks reference tae the fact that the faimily is ane o the few angiosperms that hae composite flouers.[6] This faimily haes a remarkable ecological an economical importance, an is present frae the polar regions tae the tropics, colonizin aw available habitats. The Asteraceae mey represent as much as 10% o autochthon flora in mony regions o the warld.

Maist members o Asteraceae are yerbaceous, but a significant nummer are an aa shrubs, vines an trees. The faimily haes a warldwide distribution, an is maist common in the arid an semi-arid regions o subtropical an lawer temperate latitudes.[7]

Asteraceae is an economically important faimily. Some members provide products includin cuikin iles, lettuce, sunflouer seeds, artichokes, sweetenin agents, coffee substitutes an yerbal teas. Several genera are popular wi the horticultural community, includin marigowd, pot marigowd (an aa kent as calendula), cone flouers, various daisies, fleabane, chrysanthemums, dahlias, zinnias, an heleniums. Asteraceae are important in yerbal medicine, includin Grindelia, echinacea, yarrow an mony ithers.[8] A nummer o species hae come tae be considered invasive, includin, maist notably in North Americae, dandelion, which wis oreeginally introduced bi European settlers who uised the young leaves as a salad green.[9]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x, retrieved 2010–12–10 
  2. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). "Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl, nom. cons.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008 http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/welcome.html
  4. Jeffrey, C. 2007. Compositae: Introduction with key to tribes. Pages 61-87 in Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. VIII, Flowering Plants, Eudicots, Asterales (J. W. Kadereit and C. Jeffrey, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin
  5. Panero, J.L., Crozier, B.S. Tree of Life - Asteraceae http://tolweb.org/Asteraceae/20780
  6. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. In point 18/5 states: "The following names, used traditionally, are considered valid: Compositae (Asteraceae...).
  7. Barkely, T.M., Brouillet, L., Strother, J.L. (2006) Flora of North America - Asteraceae" http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=10074
  8. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  9. "dandelion Taraxacum officinale". Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 

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