Ar'ara

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This article is aboot a toun in northren Israel. For the commonty in soothren Israel, see Ar'arat an-Naqab.
Ar'ara
Ebreu transcription(s)
 • Ebreu עַרְעָרָה
 • ISO 259 ʕarˁara
Arabic transcription(s)
 • Arabic عرعرة
Mosque in Ar'ara
Ar'ara is located in Israel
Ar'ara
Ar'ara
Coordinates: 32°29′40.41″N 35°05′38.81″E / 32.4945583°N 35.0941139°E / 32.4945583; 35.0941139Coordinates: 32°29′40.41″N 35°05′38.81″E / 32.4945583°N 35.0941139°E / 32.4945583; 35.0941139
Destrict Haifa
Government
 • Type Local cooncil (frae 1970)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 22,828

'Ar'ara (Arabic: عرعرة‎; Ebreu: עַרְעָרָה‎‎) ("juniper tree"[2]), is an Arab toun in the Wadi Ara region in northren Israel. It is locatit sooth o Umm al-Fahm juist northwast o the Green Line an is pairt o the Triangle. In 2011, the population wis 22,828.[1]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Burial complexes frae the Roman period bi Ar'ara hae been excavatit, revealin clay lamps an glass vessels an beads, commonly uised in the 1st tae 4t century C.E.. A few clay fragments frae the Mamluk period hae been foond at the same location.[3]

In the Crusader period, the place wis kent as "Castellum Arearum". In the land-allocation made bi sultan Baybars in 663 H. (1265-1266 C.E.), Ar'ara wis shared atween his amirs Ala' al-Din an Sayf al-Din Bayhaq al-Baghdadi.[4]

Ar'ara, like the rest o Palestine, wis incorporatit intae the Ottoman Empire in 1517, an in 1596, Ar'ara appeared in Ottoman tax registers as bein in the Nahiya o Shara o the Liwa o Lajjun. It haed a population o 8 Muslim hoosehaulds an paid taxes on wheat, barley, summercrops, olives, an goats or beehives.[5]

Bi the aichteent century, the veelage remained in the admeenistrative destrict o Lajjun, but the revenue o the place wis fermit for the Mutasarrıf o Jaffa.[6] In the late nineteent century, the steid wis describit as:

A veelage o moderate size on heich grund, wi a spring tae the east, a seicont tae the wast an a well tae the sooth. Thare are rock cut tombs near. The population is statit bi Consul Rogers (1859) as 400, the cultivation then bein 30 feddans.[7]

At the time o the 1931 census, Ar'ara haed 150 occupee'd hooses an a population of 971 Muslims.[8]

Ar'ara wis transferred frae Jordanian tae Israeli jurisdiction in 1949 unner the Rhodes airmistice greements.[9] The neebourin veelage o ʿAra wis mergit wi Ar'ara in 1985.

In 1945, Ar'ara an Arah haed a population o 2,290 an a laund aurie o 29,537 dunums.[10] By 1962 the aurie haed been reducit tae 7,269 dunums, pairtly due tae expropriations o 8,236 dunums bi the Israeli govrenment in 1953–54.[10] One case o expropriation frae a private laundawner namit Younis became a test case afore the Heich Court o Israel in 1953.[11] The laund haed been confiscatit bi the govrenment athoot notifyin the awner.[11] In 1954 the court ruled that the law did no require the awner tae be notifee'd an did no provide a richt for the awner tae contest the confiscation in advance.[11] This rulin an ane ither effectively endit the possibility o laund awners uisin the courts tae contest the confiscation o their laund.[11]

Maqam Shaykh Khalaf[eedit | eedit soorce]

Maqam Shaykh Khalaf is the anerlie biggin which wis notit bi the antiquities authorities in the Mandate aurie, an it is locatit on a slope bi the heichest point in the veelage, set in the middle o extensive graveyards. The Maqam is a single rectangular chamber, covered bi a dome. The twa top courses are chamfered towards the dome. On the north side is a doorwey, an double windae set inside shallae airches. Thare is a set o windaes on the wast side an aw. Inside thare are three cenotaphs, locatit east-wast, close tae the wast waw. A mihrab is locatit on the sooth waw. The date o the biggin is no kent, but accordin tae A. Petersen (who inspectit the place in 1994), the airchitectur indicate an aichteent or early nineteent century date.[12]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Locality File" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  2. Palmer, 1881, p.144
  3. Massarwa, 2007, Ar‘ara Final Report
  4. Ibn al-Furat, edition Lyons and Lyons, I, p.102; II, p.81. Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.94
  5. Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 159. 
  6. Cohen, 1973, p.175, Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.94
  7. Conder and Kitchener, 1881, p.41. Also cited in Petersen, 2002, p.94.
  8. E. Mills, ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine. p. 87. 
  9. Family Affair: The Masarwah-Marzuks, Haaretz
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sabri Jiryis (1976). "The Land Question in Israel". MERIP Reports 47: 5–20+24–26. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Hanna Dib Nakkara (1985). "Israeli Land Seizure under Various Defense and Emergency Regulations". Journal of Palestine Studies 14 (2): 13–34. doi:10.1525/jps.1985.14.2.00p0125a. 
  12. Petersen, 2002, p.94

Bibliografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]