Apiales

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Apiales
Umbella.jpg
Inflorescence o a wild carrot, Daucus carota, in the Apiaceae faimily.
Scienteefic classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Clade: Euasterids II
Order: Apiales
Nakai[1]
Families

The Apiales are an order o flouerin plants. The faimilies, gien at richt, are those recognized in the APG III seestem.[1] This is typical o the newer classifications, tho thare is some slicht variation, an in particular the Torriceliaceae mey be dividit.[2]

Unner this definition, well-kent members include carrots, celery, persel, an ivy.

The order Apiales is placed within the asterid group o eudicots as circumscribed bi the APG III seestem.[1] Within the asterids, Apiales belangs tae an unranked group cried the campanulids,[3] an within the campanulids, it belangs tae a clade kent in phylogenetic nomenclature as Apiidae.[4] In 2010, a subclade o Apiidae named Dipsapiidae wis defined tae consist o the three orders: Apiales, Paracryphiales, an Dipsacales.[5]

The circumscriptions o some o the faimilies hae chynged. In 2009, ane o the subfaimilies o Araliaceae wis shawn tae be polyphyletic.[6]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The present unnerstandin o the Apiales is fairly recent an is based upon comparison o DNA sequences bi phylogenetic methods.[7]

Unner the Cronquist seestem, anly the Apiaceae an Araliaceae wur includit here, an the restrictit order wis placed amang the rosids rather than the asterids. The Pittosporaceae wur placed within the Rosales, an mony o the ither forms within the faimily Cornaceae. Pennantia wis in the faimily Icacinaceae.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013–07–06. 
  2. Gregory M. Plunkett, Gregory T. Chandler, Porter P. Lowry, Steven M. Pinney, and Taylor S. Sprenkle (2004). "Recent advances in understanding Apiales and a revised classification". South African Journal of Botany 70(3):371-381.
  3. Richard C. Winkworth, Johannes Lundberg, and Michael J. Donoghue (2008). "Toward a resolution of Campanulid phylogeny, with special reference to the placement of Dipsacales". Taxon 57(1):53-65.
  4. Philip D. Cantino, James A. Doyle, Sean W. Graham, Walter S. Judd, Richard G. Olmstead, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, and Michael J. Donoghue (2007), "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta", Taxon 56 (3): 822–846, doi:10.2307/25065865 
  5. Tank, D. C.; Donoghue, M. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and Phylogenetic Nomenclature of the Campanulidae based on an Expanded Sample of Genes and Taxa". Systematic Botany 35 (2): 425. doi:10.1600/036364410791638306.  edit
  6. Nicolas, A. N.; Plunkett, G. M. (2009). "The demise of subfamily Hydrocotyloideae (Apiaceae) and the re-alignment of its genera across the entire order Apiales". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (1): 134–151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.06.010. PMID 19549570.  edit
  7. Chandler, G. T.; Plunkett, G. M. (2004). "Evolution in Apiales: nuclear and chloroplast markers together in (almost) perfect harmony". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 144 (2): 123. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2003.00247.x.  edit